1.Synthesis and activity of HCO-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe analogues containing beta-alanine or taurine at the central position.
Giordano C1, Lucente G, Nalli M, Pagani Zecchini G, Paglialunga Paradisi M, Varani K, Spisani S. Farmaco. 2003 Nov;58(11):1121-30.
New synthetic analogues of the chemotactic N-formyltripeptide HCO-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe have been synthesized. The reported new models, namely Boc-Met-beta-Ala-Phe-OMe (1), HCO-Met-beta-Ala-Phe-OMe (2), Boc-Met-Tau-Phe-OMe (3), HCO-Met-Tau-Phe-OMe (4) and HCl.Met-Tau-Phe-OMe (5), are characterized by the presence at the central position of a residue of beta-alanine or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine) replacing the native L-leucine. Whereas tripeptides 1 and 2 have been found quite inactive as chemoattractants, all the three models containing the Tau residue exhibit a remarkable activity. Superoxide anion production and lysozyme release have been also evaluated and the biological results are discussed together with the conformational preferences of the examined models.
2.Galanin stimulates the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in vivo in the rat ventral hippocampus.
Consolo S1, Uboldi MC, Caltavuturo C, Bartfai T. Neuroscience. 1998 Aug;85(3):819-26.
We investigated whether the neuropeptide galanin affects the nitric oxide synthase/cyclic GMP pathway in rat hippocampus by measuring in vivo the extracellular cyclic GMP levels during microdialysis. Galanin (2.5 and 3.5 nmol; i.c.v.) dose-dependently raised the extracellular levels of cyclic GMP in the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. The effect of 3.5 nmol galanin was blocked by local application of tetrodotoxin and inhibited by the high-affinity galanin antagonist M40 (galanin-[1-12]-Pro3-[Ala-Leu]2-Ala amide). The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (30 microM infused into the ventral hippocampus or 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) and the competitive one, 3-([R]-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-phosphonic acid (50 microM infused), but not local perfusion of the AMPA antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (15 microM) abolished the galanin-evoked cyclic GMP response in the hippocampus.