1.Fate and transport with material response characterization of green sorption media for copper removal via desorption process.
Chang NB1, Houmann C2, Lin KS3, Wanielista M2. Chemosphere. 2016 Apr 12;154:444-453. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.130. [Epub ahead of print]
Multiple adsorption and desorption cycles are required to achieve the reliable operation of copper removal and recovery. A green sorption media mixture composed of recycled tire chunk, expanded clay aggregate, and coconut coir was evaluated in this study for its desorptive characteristics as a companion study of the corresponding adsorption process in an earlier publication. We conducted a screening of potential desorbing agents, batch desorption equilibrium and kinetic studies, and batch tests through 3 adsorption/desorption cycles. The desorbing agent screening revealed that hydrochloric acid has good potential for copper desorption. Equilibrium data fit the Freundlich isotherm, whereas kinetic data had high correlation with the Lagergren pseudo second-order model and revealed a rapid desorption reaction. Batch equilibrium data over 3 adsorption/desorption cycles showed that the coconut coir and media mixture were the most resilient, demonstrating they could be used through 3 or more adsorption/desorption cycles.
2.New antiviral targets for innovative treatment concepts for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus.
Durantel D1, Zoulim F2. J Hepatol. 2016 Apr;64(1 Suppl):S117-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.02.016.
Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (PegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatments. While viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NUC, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PegIFN-α and/or NUC in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NUC or a combination of NUC and PegIFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of functional cure. Because of this and the need of long-term NUC administration, there is a renewed interest regarding the understanding of various steps of the HBV replication cycle, as well as specific virus-host cell interactions, in order to define new targets and develop new antiviral drugs. This includes a direct inhibition of viral replication with entry inhibitors, drugs targeting cccDNA, siRNA targeting viral transcripts, capsid assembly modulators, and approaches targeting the secretion of viral envelope proteins.
3.A N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine dangled 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-based fluorescent sensor for selective relay recognition of Cu2+ and sulfide in water.
Tang L1, Zheng Z1, Bian Y1. Luminescence. 2016 Apr 17. doi: 10.1002/bio.3128. [Epub ahead of print]
A new 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-based derivative (L) was synthesized and applied as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor for relay recognition of Cu2+ and S2- in water (Tris-HCl 10 mM, pH = 7.0) solution. L exhibits an excellent selectivity to Cu2+ over other examined metal ions with a prominent fluorescence 'turn-off' at 392 nm. L interacts with Cu2+ through a 1:2 binding stoichiometry with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10-7 M. The on-site formed L-2Cu2+ complex exhibits excellent selectivity to S2- with a fluorescence 'off-on' response via a Cu2+ displacement approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
4.Comparison of Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Starch Among 3 Arrowhead Varieties.
Li A1, Zhang Y1, Zhang Y1, Yu X2, Xiong F2, Zhou R1, Zhang Y1. J Food Sci. 2016 Apr 15. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13303. [Epub ahead of print]
Arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis) is a source of starch worldwide, but arrowhead starch has been rarely studied. In this work, starch was separated from arrowhead corm. The morphology and physicochemical properties of starch were then investigated and compared among 3 different arrowhead varieties (Purple-corm, Hongta, and Japanese). Results showed that starches from the 3 varieties similarly featured an oval shape containing a visible polarization cross, a CA -type crystalline structure, and an ordered structure in the external granule region. However, starch content, granule size, crystal characteristics, and pasting properties differed among the 3 varieties. Japanese arrowhead exhibited the highest starch content and degree of ordered structure in the external granule region, as well as onset, peak, and final gelatinization temperature. Purple-corm arrowhead starch demonstrated the highest amylose content and relative degree of crystallinity, smallest granule size, and lowest swelling power and solubility.