1.Mucosal acidification increases hydrogen sulfide release through up-regulating gene and protein expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase in the rat gastric mucosa.
Mard SA1, Veisi A2, Ahangarpour A2, Gharib-Naseri MK2. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016 Feb;19(2):172-7.
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to investigate the effects of mucosal acidification on mRNA expression and protein synthesis of cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE), cystathionine beta synthase (CBS), and mucosal release of H2S in gastric mucosa in rats.
2.Design and Evaluation of Proniosomes As A Carrier for Ocular Delivery of Lomefloxacin HCl.
Khalil RM1, Abdelbary GA2, Basha M1, Awad GE3, El-Hashemy HA1. J Liposome Res. 2016 Apr 15:1-42. [Epub ahead of print]
The current investigation aims to develop and evaluate novel ocular proniosomal gels of Lomefloxacin HCl (LXN); in order to improve its ocular bioavailability for the management of bacterial conjunctivitis. Proniosomes were prepared using different types of nonionic surfactants solely and as mixtures with Span 60. The formed gels were characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and in vitro drug release. Only Span 60 was able to form stable LXN proniosomal gel when used individually while the other surfactants formed gels only in combination with Span 60 at different ratios. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 (Span60:Tween60, 9:1) appeared as spherical shaped vesicles having high entrapment efficiency (>80%), appropriate vesicle size (187 nm) as well as controlled drug release over 12h. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the amorphous nature of LXN within the vesicles. Stability study did not show any significant changes in entrapment efficiency or vesicle size after storage for 3 months at 4°C.
3.Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods.
MacInnis JJ1, VandenBoer TC2, Young CJ1. Analyst. 2016 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]
An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission.
4.New antiviral targets for innovative treatment concepts for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus.
Durantel D1, Zoulim F2. J Hepatol. 2016 Apr;64(1 Suppl):S117-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.02.016.
Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (PegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatments. While viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NUC, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PegIFN-α and/or NUC in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NUC or a combination of NUC and PegIFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of functional cure. Because of this and the need of long-term NUC administration, there is a renewed interest regarding the understanding of various steps of the HBV replication cycle, as well as specific virus-host cell interactions, in order to define new targets and develop new antiviral drugs. This includes a direct inhibition of viral replication with entry inhibitors, drugs targeting cccDNA, siRNA targeting viral transcripts, capsid assembly modulators, and approaches targeting the secretion of viral envelope proteins.