1.Analysis of 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: application for ocular delivery using chitosan nanoparticles.
Al-Kinani AA1, Naughton DP, Calabrese G, Vangala A, Smith JR, Pierscionek BK, Alany RG. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Mar;407(9):2645-50. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8494-8. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
Oxidative damage due to low levels of glutathione (GSH) is one of the main causes of cataract formation. It has been reported that 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTZ), a cysteine prodrug, can increase the cellular level of GSH. Currently, there is no analytical method to separate and quantify OTZ from aqueous humour samples for cataract research. The present study aims to develop and validate a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method for the quantification of OTZ in simulated aqueous humour (SAH). The developed method was validated according to FDA guidelines. Accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), lower limit of detection (LLOD) and stability were the parameters assessed in the method validation. The developed method was found to be accurate and precise with LLOQ and LLOD of 200 and 100 ng/mL, respectively; method selectivity was confirmed by the absence of any matrix interference with the analyte peak.
2.The ameliorative effects of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Choi J1, Park KH, Kim SZ, Shin JH, Jang SI. Molecules. 2013 Mar 18;18(3):3467-78. doi: 10.3390/molecules18033467.
The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH) production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner.
3.Effect of procysteine on aging-associated changes in hepatic GSH and SMase: evidence for transcriptional regulation of smpd3.
Deevska G1, Sunkara M2, Karakashian C1, Peppers B1, Morris AJ2, Nikolova-Karakashian MN1. J Lipid Res. 2014 Oct;55(10):2041-52. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M048223. Epub 2014 Jul 21.
In hepatocytes, aging-associated decline in GSH has been linked to activation of neutral SMase (nSMase), accumulation of bioactive ceramide, and inflammation. In this study, we seek to test whether dietary supplementation with the cysteine precursor, L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC), would correct the aging-associated differences in hepatic GSH, nSMase, and ceramide. Young and aged mice were placed on a diet that either lacked sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) or had 0.5% OTC for 4 weeks. Mice fed standard chow were used as an additional control. SAA-deficient mice exhibited significant aging-associated differences in hepatic GSH, GSH/GSSG, ceramide, and nSMase. C24:1 ceramide, the major ceramide species in liver, was affected the most by aging, followed by the less abundant C16:0 ceramide. OTC supplementation eliminated the aging-associated differences in hepatic GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio. Surprisingly, however, instead of decreasing, the nSMase activity and ceramide increased in the OTC-fed mice irrespective of their age.
4.Dietary antioxidants prevent alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction.
Simet SM1, Pavlik JA, Sisson JH. Alcohol. 2013 Dec;47(8):629-35. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Oct 11.
Previously we have shown that chronic alcohol intake causes alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD), leading to non-responsive airway cilia. AICD likely occurs through the downregulation of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, protein kinase G (PKG) and protein kinase A (PKA). Studies by others have shown that dietary supplementation with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and procysteine prevent other alcohol-induced lung complications. This led us to hypothesize that dietary supplementation with NAC or procysteine prevents AICD. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice drank an alcohol/water solution (20% w/v) ad libitum for 6 weeks and were concurrently fed dietary supplements of either NAC or procysteine. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured in mice tracheas, and PKG/PKA responsiveness to β-agonists and NOx levels were measured from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Long-term alcohol drinking reduced CBF, PKG and PKA responsiveness to β-agonists, and lung NOx levels in BAL fluid.