1.Design of a hypoxia-activated prodrug inhibitor of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.
Zhu R1, Seow HA, Baumann RP, Ishiguro K, Penketh PG, Shyam K, Sartorelli AC. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Oct 1;22(19):6242-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.08.008. Epub 2012 Aug 10.
The efficacy of agents that alkylate the O-6 position of guanine is inhibited by O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) which removes these lesions from the tumor DNA. To increase differential toxicity, inhibitors must selectively deplete AGT in tumors, while sparing normal tissues where this protein serves a protective function. A newly synthesized prodrug of the AGT inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) with an α,α-dimethyl-4-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl moiety masking the essential 2-amino group has demonstrated the feasibility of targeting hypoxic regions that are unique to solid tumors, for drug delivery. However, these modifications resulted in greatly decreased solubility. Recently, new potent global AGT inhibitors with improved formulatability such as O(6)-[(3-aminomethyl)benzylguanine (1) have been developed. However, acetylamino (N-(3-(((2-amino-9H-purin-6-yl)oxy)methyl)benzyl)acetamide) (2) exhibits a pronounced decrease in activity.
2.Metabolic disposition of the anti-cancer agent [(14)C]laromustine in male rats.
Nassar AF1, Wisnewski A, King I. Xenobiotica. 2015;45(8):711-21. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2015.1016475. Epub 2015 Mar 23.
1. Laromustine (VNP40101M, also known as Cloretazine) is a novel sulfonylhydrazine alkylating (anticancer) agent. This article describes the use of quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) and mass balance to study the tissue distribution, the excretion mass balance and pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration of [(14)C]VNP40101M to rats. A single 10 mg/kg IV bolus dose of [(14)C]VNP40101M was given to rats. 2. The recovery of radioactivity from the Group 1 animals over a 7-day period was an average of 92.1% of the administered dose, which was accounted for in the excreta and carcass. Most of the radioactivity was eliminated within 48 h via urine (48%), with less excreted in feces (5%) and expired air accounted for (11%). The plasma half-life of [(14)C]laromustine was approximately 62 min and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) averaged 8.3 μg/mL. 3. The QWBA study indicated that the drug-derived radioactivity was widely distributed to tissues through 7 days post-dose after a single 10 mg/kg IV bolus dose of [(14)C]VNP40101M to male pigmented Long-Evans rats.
3.Influence of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases on DNA interstrand cross-link formation by 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine, the active anticancer moiety generated by laromustine<
Penketh PG1, Patridge E, Shyam K, Baumann RP, Zhu R, Ishiguro K, Sartorelli AC. Chem Res Toxicol. 2014 Aug 18;27(8):1440-9. doi: 10.1021/tx500197t. Epub 2014 Jul 17.
Prodrugs of 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE) are promising anticancer agents. The 90CE moiety is a readily latentiated, short-lived (t1/2 ∼ 30 s) chloroethylating agent that can generate high yields of oxophilic electrophiles responsible for the chloroethylation of the O-6 position of guanine in DNA. These guanine O-6 alkylations are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of 90CE and its prodrugs. Thus, 90CE demonstrates high selectivity toward tumors with diminished levels of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT), the resistance protein responsible for O(6)-alkylguanine repair. The formation of O(6)-(2-chloroethyl)guanine lesions ultimately leads to the generation of highly cytotoxic 1-(N(3)-cytosinyl),-2-(N(1)-guaninyl)ethane DNA interstrand cross-links via N(1),O(6)-ethanoguanine intermediates. The anticancer activity arising from this sequence of reactions is thus identical to this component of the anticancer activity of the clinically used chloroethylnitrosoureas.
4.A strategy for selective O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase depletion under hypoxic conditions.
Penketh PG1, Shyam K, Baumann RP, Ishiguro K, Patridge EV, Zhu R, Sartorelli AC. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012 Aug;80(2):279-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2012.01401.x. Epub 2012 May 23.
Cellular resistance to chemotherapeutics that alkylate the O-6 position of guanine residues in DNA correlates with their O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity. In normal cells high [O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase] is beneficial, sparing the host from toxicity, whereas in tumor cells high [O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase] prevents chemotherapeutic response. Therefore, it is necessary to selectively inactivate O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in tumors. The oxygen-deficient compartment unique to solid tumors is conducive to reduction, and could be utilized to provide this selectivity. Therefore, we synthesized 2-nitro-6-benzyloxypurine, an analog of O(6)-benzylguanine in which the essential 2-amino group is replaced by a nitro moiety, and 2-nitro-6-benzyloxypurine is >2000-fold weaker than O(6)-benzylguanine as an O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor. We demonstrate oxygen concentration sensitive net reduction of 2-nitro-6-benzyloxypurine by cytochrome P450 reductase, xanthine oxidase, and EMT6, DU145, and HL-60 cells to yield O(6)-benzylguanine.