1.Identification of lipopeptide isoforms by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS based on the simultaneous purification of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin by RP-HPLC.
Yang H1, Li X, Li X, Yu H, Shen Z. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Mar;407(9):2529-42. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8486-8. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
A three-stage linear gradient strategy using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was optimized for rapid, high-quality, and simultaneous purification of the lipopeptide isoforms of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin, which may differ in composition by only a single amino acid and/or the fatty acid residue. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to detect the lipopeptides harvested from each reversed-phase HPLC peak. Amino acid analysis based on phenyl isothiocyanate derivatization was further used for confirmation of the amino acid species and molar ratio in a certain HPLC fraction. By this MALDI-TOF-MS/MS coupled with amino acid analysis, it was revealed that iturin at m/z 1,043 consists of a circular Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser peptide and C14 β-OH fatty acid. Surfactin homologs from Bacillus subtilis THY-7 at m/z 1,030, 1,044, 1,058, and 1,072 possess a circular Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu peptide and the β-OH fatty acid with a different length (C13-C16).
2.Peptide analogues of a subdominant epitope expressed in ebv-associated tumors: synthesis and immunological activity.
Marastoni M1, Bazzaro M, Micheletti F, Gavioli R, Tomatis R. J Med Chem. 2001 Jul 5;44(14):2370-3.
H-Cys-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Leu-Thr-Met-Val-OH (CLG) peptide is an EBV subdominant epitope that represents the target of HLA-A2 restricted CTL responses. The CLG peptide has low affinity for HLA-A2 and does not produce stable complexes, both factors that determine weak CTL responses. In contrast, the [Tyr(1), Ala(3)]CLG (YLA) analogue showed high affinity for HLA-A2 molecules and efficiently stimulated CLG-specific CTL precursors. Nevertheless, this modified epitope showed low enzymatic stability. To further improve the immunotherapeutical potential of this "improved epitope", we have synthesized and tested YLA analogues containing different modifications next to the scissile peptide bond. Among the analogues we found three peptides, with higher enzymatic resistance, that efficiently stimulate CTL responses. These peptides may be used for EBV-specific immunotherapies.
3.Nc100668, a new tracer for imaging of venous thromboembolism: disposition and metabolism in rats.
Skotland T1, Hustvedt SO, Oulie I, Jacobsen PB, Friisk GA, Langøy AS, Uran S, Sandosham J, Cuthbertson A, Toft KG. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jan;34(1):111-20. Epub 2005 Oct 26.
The 99mTc-complex of NC100668 [Acetyl-Asn-Gln-Glu-Gln-Val-Ser-Pro-Tyr(3-iodo)-Thr-Leu-Leu-Lys-Gly-NC100194] is being evaluated for nuclear medical imaging of venous thromboembolism. NC100668 is a 13-amino acid peptide with a Tc-binding chelator [NC100194; -NH-CH2-CH2-N(CH2-CH2-NH-C(CH3)2-C(CH3)=N-OH)2] linked to the C-terminal end. Following injection in rats of [Asn-U-14C]NC100668 (labeling of the N-terminal amino acid), approximately 70% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine within 3 days. Following injection of [Lys-U-14C]NC100668 (labeling close to the C-terminal amino acid), radioactivity was cleared more slowly, with only 8% recovered in urine and approximately 80% of the radioactivity present in the body after 3 days. The highest concentration of radioactivity in the body following injection of [Lys-U-14C]NC100668 was observed in the kidney inner cortex; this probably represents 14C-labeled Lys, which is reabsorbed in the kidney tubules and incorporated into protein metabolism.
4.Cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope analogues containing cis- or trans-4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid residues.
Marastoni M1, Bazzaro M, Micheletti F, Gavioli R, Tomatis R. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Sep;10(9):3061-6.
In order to improve the immunotherapeutical potential of H-Cys-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Leu-Thr-Met-Val-OH (CLG) peptide, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) subdominant epitope derived from the membrane protein LMP2, we have synthesized and tested CLG analogues containing cis- and/or trans-4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (ACCA) replacing Gly-Gly and/or Thr-Met dipeptide units. All pseudopeptides were tested for metabolic stability and for their capacity to bind HLA-A2 molecules and to sensitize target cells to lysis. All new compounds exhibited higher enzymatic resistance compared to the original CLG and some trans-ACCA-derivatives were able to associate HLA-A2 and to efficiently stimulate CTL responses directed against the CLG natural epitope.