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Maculatin 1.3

* Please kindly note that our products are not to be used for therapeutic purposes and cannot be sold to patients.

The peptide is HIV inhibitory (EC50=4 µM). The source of Maculatin 1.3 is Litoria eucnemis, Australia area.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
>96% by HPLC
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. The orientation of the antibiotic peptide maculatin 1.1 in DMPG and DMPC lipid bilayers. Support for a pore-forming mechanism
C S B Chia, J Torres, M A Cooper, I T Arkin, J H Bowie FEBS Lett. 2002 Feb 13;512(1-3):47-51. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(01)03313-0.
Maculatin 1.1 is an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the Australian tree frog Litoria genimaculata that adopts an amphipathic, alpha-helical structure in solution. Its orientation and conformation when incorporated to pre-formed DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) and DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) vesicles was determined using polarised Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection infrared and deuterium exchange experiments. For DMPG membranes, our results show insertion of 70% of the maculatin 1.1 molecules, with an angle of insertion of approximately 35 degrees to the membrane normal and with a predominant alpha-helical structure. These results suggest that maculatin 1.1 acts through a pore-forming mechanism to lyse bacterial membranes. A similar degree of insertion in DMPG (65%) and alpha-helical structure was observed for a biologically inactive, less amphipathic maculatin 1.1 analogue, P15A, although the helix tilt was found to be greater (46 degrees) than for maculatin 1.1. Similar experiments performed using DMPC liposomes showed poor insertion, less than 5%, for both maculatin 1.1 and its analogue. In addition, the shape of the amide I band in these samples is consistent with alpha-helix, beta-structure and disordered structures being present in similar proportion. These results clearly show that maculatin 1.1 inserts preferentially in negatively charged membranes (DMPG) which mimic the negatively charged membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. We attribute the high percentage of insertion of the biologically inactive analogue in DMPG to the fact that its concentration on the membrane surface in our experiments is likely to be much higher than that found in physiological conditions.
2. Host defence peptides from the skin glands of the Australian blue mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa. Solution structure of the antibacterial peptide citropin 1.1
K L Wegener, P A Wabnitz, J A Carver, J H Bowie, B C Chia, J C Wallace, M J Tyler Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct;265(2):627-37. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00750.x.
Nineteen citropin peptides are present in the secretion from the granular dorsal glands of the Blue Mountains tree-frog Litoria citropa; 15 of these peptides are also present in the secretion from the submental gland. Two major peptides, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH2), citropin 1.2 (GLFDIIKKVASVVGGL-NH2) and a minor peptide, citropin 1.3 (GLFDIIKKVASVIGGL-NH2) are wide-spectrum antibacterial peptides. The amphibian has an endoprotease which deactivates these membrane-active peptides by removing residues from the N-terminal end: loss of three residues gives the most abundant degradation products. The solution structure of the basic peptide citropin 1.1 has been determined by NMR spectroscopy [in a solvent mixture of trifluoroethanol/water (1 : 1)] to be an amphipathic alpha-helix with well-defined hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The additional four peptides produced by the dorsal glands are structurally related to the antibacterial citropin 1 peptides but contain three more residues at their C-terminus [e.g. citropin 1.1.3 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGLASP-OH)]. These peptides show minimal antibacterial activity; their role in the amphibian skin is not known.
3. Database screening and in vivo efficacy of antimicrobial peptides against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300
Joseph Menousek, Biswajit Mishra, Mark L Hanke, Cortney E Heim, Tammy Kielian, Guangshun Wang Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012 May;39(5):402-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.02.003. Epub 2012 Mar 23.
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for developing a generation of new antimicrobials to meet the challenge of antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To facilitate the search for new candidates, we have utilised the Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD), which contains natural AMPs from bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. This study demonstrates the identification of novel templates against MRSA by screening 30 peptides selected from the APD. These peptides are short (<25 residues), cysteine-free, cationic and represent candidates from different biological sources such as bacteria, insects, arachnids, tunicates, amphibians, fish and mammals. Six peptides, including ascaphin-8, database-screened antimicrobial peptide 1 (DASamP1), DASamP2, lycotoxin I, maculatin 1.3 and piscidin 1, were found to exert potent antimicrobial activity against an MRSA USA300 isolate. Although five of the six peptides showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, DASamP1 displayed killing of MRSA in vitro but not of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, DASamP1 suppressed early biofilm formation in a mouse model of catheter-associated MRSA infection. DASamP1 is a novel, short and potent peptide that will be a useful starting template for further developing novel anti-MRSA peptides.
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