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Multiple Antigenic peptides (MAPs) are artificially branched peptides with lysine residues as the scaffold core, supporting the formation ≤8 branches with varying or the same peptide sequences. MAPs have been used to produce antibodies for immunological research. MAPs have a high molar ratio of peptide antigen to core molecule and does not require carrier protein to elicit antibody response.

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1. MAP kinase kinase kinases and innate immunity
Antony Symons, Soren Beinke, Steven C Ley Trends Immunol. 2006 Jan;27(1):40-8. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2005 Dec 13.
Toll-like receptors, which respond to invariant microbial molecules, and receptors for the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 are crucial for initiation and regulation of innate immune responses. These receptors activate each of the major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, c-Jun amino-terminal kinases and p38 MAP kinases, which are crucial for cell survival and controlling the expression of immune mediators. Here we discuss recent studies characterizing the specific MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP 3-kinases) that link MAP kinases to receptors involved in innate immunity and the mechanisms by which the activity of MAP 3-kinases is regulated by such receptors.
2. A Review on Map-Merging Methods for Typical Map Types in Multiple-Ground-Robot SLAM Solutions
Shuien Yu, Chunyun Fu, Amirali K Gostar, Minghui Hu Sensors (Basel). 2020 Dec 7;20(23):6988. doi: 10.3390/s20236988.
When multiple robots are involved in the process of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a global map should be constructed by merging the local maps built by individual robots, so as to provide a better representation of the environment. Hence, the map-merging methods play a crucial rule in multi-robot systems and determine the performance of multi-robot SLAM. This paper looks into the key problem of map merging for multiple-ground-robot SLAM and reviews the typical map-merging methods for several important types of maps in SLAM applications: occupancy grid maps, feature-based maps, and topological maps. These map-merging approaches are classified based on their working mechanism or the type of features they deal with. The concepts and characteristics of these map-merging methods are elaborated in this review. The contents summarized in this paper provide insights and guidance for future multiple-ground-robot SLAM solutions.
3. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions
G Pearson, F Robinson, T Beers Gibson, B E Xu, M Karandikar, K Berman, M H Cobb Endocr Rev. 2001 Apr;22(2):153-83. doi: 10.1210/edrv.22.2.0428.
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms. MAP kinases lie in protein kinase cascades. This review discusses the regulation and functions of mammalian MAP kinases. Nonenzymatic mechanisms that impact MAP kinase functions and findings from gene disruption studies are highlighted. Particular emphasis is on ERK1/2.

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