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Mastoparan X

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It is a G protein activator peptide that binds to Gi and Go. It also binds with high affinity to calmodulin (Kd~0.9 nM) and inhibits sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (Ki=4.4 mM).

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
Mastoparan X
H-Ile-Asn-Trp-Lys-Gly-Ile-Ala-Ala-Met-Ala-Lys-Lys-Leu-Leu-NH2; L-isoleucyl-L-asparagyl-L-tryptophyl-L-lysyl-glycyl-L-isoleucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-methionyl-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinamide; mastoparan-V; MP-V; Mas X
Lyophilized Solid
≥95% by HPLC
1.2±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point
1797.4±65.0°C at 760 mmHg
Store at -20°C
Soluble in Water
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. G protein-bound conformation of mastoparan-X, a receptor-mimetic peptide
M Sukumar, T Higashijima J Biol Chem . 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21421-4.
Mastoparans are a family of 14-residue peptide toxins from wasp venom which have been proposed to stimulate secretion from a variety of cells, by directly activating GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). In vitro studies have shown that mastoparans activate G proteins by a mechanism remarkably similar to that used by agonist-bound receptors (Higashijima, T., Uzu, S., Nakajima, T., and Ross, E. M. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6491-6494). Here, we report the conformation of mastoparan-X (INWKGIAAMAKKLL-NH2) when it is bound to the alpha subunits of recombinant G(i) and G(o), derived from an analysis of transferred nuclear Overhauser effects in a two-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum of mastoparan-X obtained in the presence of these G proteins. Restrained molecular dynamic simulations with NMR-derived distance constraints were used to determine conformations consistent with NMR data. The G(i)- and G(o)-bound conformations of mastoparan-X are very similar, and in both cases, a major part of the molecule adopts an amphiphilic alpha-helical conformation. The lysine residues are known to be crucial for activity, and it is thus likely that at least the polar face of the amphiphilic helix is in contact with the G proteins. These conclusions should be useful in the design of potent and selective analogs of mastoparan and in the development of models for receptor-G protein interaction.
2. Mastoparan/Mastoparan X altered binding behavior of La3+ to calmodulin in ternary complexes
Kui Wang, Xiaoda Yang, Jian Hu, Qin Yang J Inorg Biochem . 2008 Feb;102(2):278-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.08.011.
Ca(2+) binds to calmodulin (CaM) and triggers the interaction of CaM with its target proteins; CaM binding proteins (CaMBPs) can also regulate the metal binding to CaM. In the present paper, La(3+) binding to CaM was studied in the presence of the CaM binding peptides, Mastoparan (Mas) and Mas X, using ultrafiltration and titration of fluorescence. Ca(2+) binding was used as an analog to understand La(3+) binding in intact CaM and isolated N/C-terminal CaM domain of metal-CaM binary system and metal-CaM-CaMBPs ternary system. Mas/Mas X increased binding affinity of La(3+) to CaM by 0.5 approximately 3 orders magnitude. The metal ions binding affinity to the C-terminal or the N-terminal CaM domain suggested that in the first phase of binding process both Ca(2+) and La(3+) bind to C-terminal of CaM in the presence of Mas/Mas X. In the presence of CaM binding peptides, La(3+) binding preference was substantially altered from the metal-CaM binary system where La(3+) slightly preferred binding to the N-terminal sites of CaM. Our results will be helpful in understanding La(3+) interactions with CaM in the biological systems.
3. Structure of tightly membrane-bound mastoparan-X, a G-protein-activating peptide, determined by solid-state NMR
Jang-Su Park, Shin-Won Kang, Hideo Akutsu, Toshiyuki Kohno, Kaori Wakamatsu, Ikuko Yumen, Toshimichi Fujiwara, Yasuto Todokoro, Kei Fukushima Biophys J . 2006 Aug 15;91(4):1368-79. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.106.082735.
The structure of mastoparan-X (MP-X), a G-protein activating peptide from wasp venom, in the state tightly bound to anionic phospholipid bilayers was determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 NMR signals of uniformly labeled MP-X were completely assigned by multidimensional intraresidue C-C, N-CalphaCbeta, and N-Calpha-C', and interresidue Calpha-CalphaCbeta, N-CalphaCbeta, and N-C'-Calpha correlation experiments. The backbone torsion angles were predicted from the chemical shifts of 13C', 13Calpha, 13Cbeta, and 15N signals with the aid of protein NMR database programs. In addition, two 13C-13C and three 13C-15N distances between backbone nuclei were precisely measured by rotational resonance and REDOR experiments, respectively. The backbone structure of MP-X was determined from the 26 dihedral angle restraints and five distances with an average root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 A. Peptide MP-X in the bilayer-bound state formed an amphiphilic alpha-helix for residues Trp3-Leu14 and adopted an extended conformation for Asn2. This membrane-bound conformation is discussed in relation to the peptide's activities to form pores in membranes and to activate G-proteins. This study demonstrates the power of multidimensional solid-state NMR of uniformly isotope-labeled molecules and distance measurements for determining the structures of peptides bound to lipid membranes.
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