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γ−Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
2-(methylamino)pentanedioic acid
N-Methyl-DL-glutamic acid; 2-(methylamino)pentanedioic acid; H-DL-Meglu-OH; N-Methyl-DL-Glu; Me DL Glu OH
White crystalline powder
1.278 g/cm3
Boiling Point
330.2°C at 760 mmHg
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Regulation of hepatic glutamine metabolism by miR-122
Dipanwita Sengupta, Teresa Cassel, Kun-Yu Teng, Mona Aljuhani, Vivek K Chowdhary, Peng Hu, Xiaoli Zhang, Teresa W-M Fan, Kalpana Ghoshal Mol Metab. 2020 Apr;34:174-186. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2020.01.003. Epub 2020 Jan 9.
Objective: It is well established that the liver-specific miR-122, a bona fide tumor suppressor, plays a critical role in lipid homeostasis. However, its role, if any, in amino acid metabolism has not been explored. Since glutamine (Gln) is a critical energy and anaplerotic source for mammalian cells, we assessed Gln metabolism in control wild type (WT) mice and miR-122 knockout (KO) mice by stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) studies. Methods: Six-to eight-week-old WT and KO mice and 12- to 15-month-old liver tumor-bearing mice were injected with [U-13C5,15N2]-L-Gln, and polar metabolites from the liver tissues were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS). Gln-metabolism was also assessed in a Gln-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (EC4). Expressions of glutaminases (Gls and Gls2) were analyzed in mouse livers and human primary HCC samples. Results: The results showed that loss of miR-122 promoted glutaminolysis but suppressed gluconeogenesis in mouse livers as evident from the buildup of 13C- and/or 15N-Glu and decrease in glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) levels, respectively, in KO livers. Enhanced glutaminolysis is consistent with the upregulation of expressions of Gls (kidney-type glutaminase) and Slc1a5, a neutral amino acid transporter in KO livers. Both Gls and Slc1a5 were confirmed as direct miR-122 targets by the respective 3'-UTR-driven luciferase assays. Importantly, expressions of Gls and Slc1a5 as well as glutaminase activity were suppressed in a Gln-dependent HCC (EC4) cell line transfected with miR-122 mimic that resulted in decreased 13C-Gln, 13C-á-ketoglutarate, 13C-isocitrate, and 13C-citrate levels. In contrast, 13C-phosphoenolpyruvate and 13C-G6P levels were elevated in cells expressing ectopic miR-122, suggesting enhanced gluconeogenesis. Finally, The Cancer Genome Atlas-Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (TCGA-LIHC) database analysis showed that expression of GLS is negatively correlated with miR-122 in primary human HCCs, and the upregulation of GLS RNA is associated with higher tumor grade. More importantly, patients with higher expressions of GLS or SLC1A5 in tumors exhibited poor survival compared with those expressing lower levels of these proteins. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that miR-122 modulates Gln metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, implicating the therapeutic potential of miR-122 in HCCs that exhibit relatively high GLS levels.
2. Oral absorption enhancement of dipeptide L-Glu-L-Trp-OH by lipid and glycosyl conjugation
Julie A Bergeon, Yiu-Ngok Chan, Bruce G Charles, Istvan Toth Biopolymers. 2008;90(5):633-43. doi: 10.1002/bip.21003.
In recent years, the conjugation of sugar moieties and lipoamino acids has been extensively investigated as a mean to enhance the stability towards enzymatic degradation and the permeability across biological membranes of poorly orally available drugs, including peptides. In this prospect, a library of novel derivatives of the dipeptide L-Glu-L-Trp, a naturally occurring thymic immunomodulator with high hydrophilic character and low membrane permeability, was designed and synthesised by conjugating 2-amino-dodecanoic acid (C(12)) and/or 1-amino-beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcAN), beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine succinamic acid (GlsNS) residues to the Glu-Trp scaffold, using an Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy on trichlorotrityl resin. A cellobiose derivative was also prepared in solution. The synthesized peptides showed no sign of toxicity to red blood cells at 200 microM (haemolysis assay) and their resistance against enzymatic hydrolysis, assessed in Caco-2 homogenates, was usually significantly increased, particularly for the C-terminal conjugates. Several derivatives also saw their apparent permeability values greatly enhanced and one of the conjugates tested proved to be able to release the initial dipeptide after penetrating Caco-2 monolayers. An initial in vivo experiment was then carried out in male Wistar rats to examine the effect of conjugation on the absorption rate and bioavailability.
3. Hyperglycemia Acutely Increases Cytosolic Reactive Oxygen Species via O-linked GlcNAcylation and CaMKII Activation in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes
Shan Lu, Zhandi Liao, Xiyuan Lu, Dörthe M Katschinski, Mark Mercola, Ju Chen, Joan Heller Brown, Jeffery D Molkentin, Julie Bossuyt, Donald M Bers Circ Res. 2020 May 8;126(10):e80-e96. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316288. Epub 2020 Mar 5.
Rationale: Diabetes mellitus is a complex, multisystem disease, affecting large populations worldwide. Chronic CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) activation may occur in diabetes mellitus and be arrhythmogenic. Diabetic hyperglycemia was shown to activate CaMKII by (1) O-linked attachment of N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) at S280 leading to arrhythmia and (2) a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidation of CaMKII that can increase postinfarction mortality. Objective: To test whether high extracellular glucose (Hi-Glu) promotes ventricular myocyte ROS generation and the role played by CaMKII. Methods and results: We tested how extracellular Hi-Glu influences ROS production in adult ventricular myocytes, using DCF (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and genetically targeted Grx-roGFP2 redox sensors. Hi-Glu (30 mmol/L) significantly increased the rate of ROS generation-an effect prevented in myocytes pretreated with CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 or from either global or cardiac-specific CaMKIIδ KO (knockout) mice. CaMKII KO or inhibition also prevented Hi-Glu-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks). Thus, CaMKII activation is required for Hi-Glu-induced ROS generation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak in cardiomyocytes. To test the involvement of O-GlcNAc-CaMKII pathway, we inhibited GlcNAcylation removal by Thiamet G (ThmG), which mimicked the Hi-Glu-induced ROS production. Conversely, inhibition of GlcNAcylation (OSMI-1 [(αR)-α-[[(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-6-quinolinyl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-(2-furanylmethyl)-2-methoxy-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzeneacetamide]) prevented ROS induction in response to either Hi-Glu or ThmG. Moreover, in a CRSPR-based knock-in mouse in which the functional GlcNAcylation site on CaMKIIδ was ablated (S280A), neither Hi-Glu nor ThmG induced myocyte ROS generation. So CaMKIIδ-S280 is required for the Hi-Glu-induced (and GlcNAc dependent) ROS production. To identify the ROS source(s), we used different inhibitors of NOX (NADPH oxidase) 2 (Gp91ds-tat peptide), NOX4 (GKT137831), mitochondrial ROS (MitoTempo), and NOS (NO synthase) pathway inhibitors (L-NAME, L-NIO, and L-NPA). Only NOX2 inhibition or KO prevented Hi-Glu/ThmG-induced ROS generation. Conclusions: Diabetic hyperglycemia induces acute cardiac myocyte ROS production by NOX2 that requires O-GlcNAcylation of CaMKIIδ at S280. This novel ROS induction may exacerbate pathological consequences of diabetic hyperglycemia.
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