Melittin (honeybee)

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Melittin (honeybee)
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Melittin is a polypeptide isolated from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It inhibits protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase and Na+/K+-ATPase (synaptosomal membrane).

Peptide Inhibitors
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Melittin (honeybee)
Size Price Stock Quantity
25 mg $629 In stock
Honeybee melittin; Bee venom melittin; Forapin; H-Gly-Ile-Gly-Ala-Val-Leu-Lys-Val-Leu-Thr-Thr-Gly-Leu-Pro-Ala-Leu-Ile-Ser-Trp-Ile-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Gln-Gln-NH2; glycyl-L-isoleucyl-glycyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-valyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-threonyl-glycyl-L-leucyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-seryl-L-tryptophyl-L-isoleucyl-L-lysyl-L-arginyl-L-lysyl-L-arginyl-L-glutaminyl-L-glutaminamide
White Lyophilized Powder
1.39 g/cm3
Store at -20°C
Soluble in Water (1 mg/mL), DMSO, DMF
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. Quantitative Measurement of Melittin in Asian Honeybee Venom Using a New Method Including UPLC-QqTOF-MS
Zeqin Guo, Chundong Liu, Sheng Huang, Jianhua Wang, Yan Wang Toxins (Basel) . 2020 Jul 4;12(7):437. doi: 10.3390/toxins12070437.
Asian honeybee venom is widely used in traditional oriental medicine. Melittin is the main component of Asian honeybee venom. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) method was used for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses of melittin in Asian honeybee venom. The results showed that the dynamic linear range of melittin was from 0.094 to 20 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification was 0.3125 μg/mL. The spiking recovery of melittin in honeybee venom ranged from 84.88% to 93.05%. Eighteen Asian honeybee venom samples in eighteen batches were collected from two different zones of China, and their melittin contents were measured. The contents of melittin in Asian honeybee venom samples was 33.9-46.23% of dry weight. This method proved a useful tool for the rapid evaluation of the authenticity and quality of Asian honeybee venom in terms of the melittin contents, and will contribute to a broader understanding of Asian honeybee venom.
2. Melittin, a honeybee venom derived peptide for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy
Tenzin Tender, K Krishna Sharma, Sridevi Balireddy, Hariharapura Raghu Chandrashekar, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Rakesh Ravishankar Rahangdale Med Oncol . 2021 Apr 2;38(5):52. doi: 10.1007/s12032-021-01496-9.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the most prevalent neurological complication of cancer treatment which involves sensory and motor nerve dysfunction. Severe CIPN has been reported in around 5% of patients treated with single and up to 38% of patients treated with multiple chemotherapeutic agents. Present medications available for CIPN are the use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and tricyclic antidepressants, which are only marginally effective in treating neuropathic symptoms. In reality, symptom reappears after these drugs are discontinued. The pathogenesis of CIPN has not been sufficiently recognized and methods for the prevention and treatment of CIPN remain vulnerable to therapeutic problems. It has witnessed that the present medicines available for the disease offer only symptomatic relief for the short term and have severe adverse side effects. There is no standard treatment protocol for preventing, reducing, and treating CIPN. Therefore, there is a need to develop curative therapy that can be used to treat this complication. Melittin is the main pharmacological active constituent of honeybee venom and has therapeutic values including in chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. It has been shown that melittin and whole honey bee venom are effective in treating paclitaxel and oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. The use of melittin against peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapy has been limited despite having strong therapeutic efficacy against the disease. Melittin mediated haemolysis is the key reason to restrict its use. In our study, it is found that α-Crystallin (an eye lens protein) is capable of inhibiting melittin-induced haemolysis which gives hope of using an appropriate combination of melittin and α-Crystallin in the treatment of CIPN. The review summarizes the efforts made by different research groups to address the concern with melittin in the treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy. It also focuses on the possible approaches to overcome melittin-induced haemolysis.
3. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy
Mohamad Rady, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Islam Rady, Hasan Mukhtar Cancer Lett . 2017 Aug 28;402:16-31. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.05.010.
Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle based delivery of MEL have been utilized to circumvent the issues. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the anticancer effects of bee venom and MEL on different kinds of cancers. Further, we also present the available information for the possible mechanism of action of bee venom and/or MEL.

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