1. Localization of active and inactive elastase, alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor, and alpha-2-macroglobulin in human gingiva
S W Cox, C N Kennett, B M Eley J Dent Res . 1995 Feb;74(2):667-74. doi: 10.1177/00220345950740020701.
Biochemically, there is usually much less elastase activity in gingival tissue than in crevicular fluid. The tissue distributions of active and inactive elastase and the endogenous inhibitors alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1PI) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) were therefore compared. Inflamed tissue was obtained from chronic periodontitis patients, and cryostat sections were incubated with the histochemical elastase substrate MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-MNA. Adjacent sections were examined immunocytochemically with antibodies to neutrophil elastase, alpha 1PI, alpha 2M, and leukocyte differentiation antigens. Antigenic elastase was widely distributed in CD15-positive granulocytes in both the epithelium and lamina propria as well as in granulomatous tissue from infrabony defects. However, there was very limited histochemical staining of these cells, and biochemical activity against the equivalent substrate MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-AFC could be extracted only from sections with such staining. The pH optimum and effector response of the activity in the extracts were, nevertheless, consistent with those of leukocyte elastase. The large difference between the total elastase content of the tissue, as determined immunocytochemically, and the limited amount of active enzyme, as demonstrated histochemically, indicated that the majority was in an inactive form. The involvement of tissue inhibitors was suggested by the fact that extracts from sections with no histochemical staining reduced biochemical elastase activity in crevicular fluid. alpha 2M was found in many fibroblasts and also some CD68-positive macrophages, which additionally contained alpha 1PI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
2. A simple, combined fluorogenic and chromogenic method for the assay of proteases in gingival crevicular fluid
K Cho, S W Cox, R E Smith, B M Eley J Periodontal Res . 1990 May;25(3):164-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1990.tb01039.x.
Substrate impregnated paper discs were prepared using peptidyl derivatives of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (AFC). After incubation with test solutions, the green, UV-induced fluorescence of AFC liberated by enzyme activity was distinguishable from the blue-violet fluorescence of the substrates. The AFC could then be coupled with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to form a colored Schiff base. Semi-quantiative assessments of disc fluorescence and color were made by comparison with AFC/substrate standards. Assays with discs impregnated with MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-AFC, Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AFC and Ala-Pro-AFC for elastase-, trypsin-, and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV-like activities respectively were evaluated using purified DPP IV and 100 eluates of crevicular fluid collected on filter paper strips from 10 gingivitis and periodontitis patients. The results showed that, within their working ranges, scores of disc fluorescence and color were reasonably accurate and reliable by comparison with enzyme activities measured in parallel quantitative fluorimetric assays with the same substrates. Using disc color, which was more sensitive than fluorescence, it was generally possible to measure all three enzyme activities in crevicular fluid samples from 5 periodontitis patients with varying degrees of gingival inflammation and pocketing. Disc color assays require no special apparatus and could be used for enzyme estimations in the clinical setting.
3. Detection of cathepsin B- and L-, elastase-, tryptase-, trypsin-, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV-like activities in crevicular fluid from gingivitis and periodontitis patients with peptidyl derivatives of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin
S W Cox, B M Eley J Periodontal Res . 1989 Nov;24(6):353-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1989.tb00882.x.
Crevicular fluid samples were collected from 20 gingivitis and periodontitis patients using filter paper strips; these were then eluted into buffer. Portions of each sample were combined and the activities of this pooled eluate against different peptidyl derivatives of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (AFC) were examined with respect to their pH profiles and effector responses. Ca-thepsin B- and L-like activity was detected with Bz-Val-Lys-Lys-Arg-AFC; elastase-like activity with MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-AFC; tryptase-like activity with Z-Ala-Ala-Lys-AFC; trypsin-like activity with Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AFC; and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV-like activity with Ala-Pro-AFC. The selectivity and sensitivity of these assays were improved by choice of appropriate conditions. The cathepsin B- and L-, elastase-, tryptase-, and trypsin-like activities all had properties consistent with those from host sources, whilst partial inactivation of the DPP IV-like activity by heat treatment (60 degrees C for 30 min) suggested that it may have represented a mixture of human and Bacteroides gingivalis enzymes. Individual patient eluates showed wide variations in enzyme concentrations, but generally elastase-like activity was by far the highest. The sensitivity of the assays with AFC-linked substrates was such that it should prove possible to measure all five different types of activity in crevicular fluid samples from local periodontal disease sites.