1. μ-conotoxin TsIIIA, a peptide inhibitor of human voltage-gated sodium channel hNav1.8
Manyi Yang, Maojun Zhou Toxicon. 2020 Oct 30;186:29-34. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.07.024. Epub 2020 Aug 3.
TsIIIA, the first μ-conotoxin from Conus tessulatus, can selectively inhibit rat tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. TsIIIA also shows potent analgesic activity in a mice hotplate analgesic assay, but its effect on human sodium channels remains unknown. In this study, eight human sodium channel subtypes, hNav1.1- hNav1.8, were expressed in HEK293 or ND7/23 cells and tested on the chemically synthesized TsIIIA. Patch clamp experiments showed that 10 μM TsIIIA had no effects on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive hNav1.1, hNav1.2, hNav1.3, hNav1.4, hNav1.6 and hNav1.7, as well as tetrodotoxin-resistant hNav1.5. For tetrodotoxin-resistant hNav1.8, concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 μM TsIIIA reduced the hNav1.8 currents to 59.26%, 36.21% and 24.93% respectively. Further detailed dose-effect experiments showed that TsIIIA inhibited hNav1.8 currents with an IC50 value of 2.11 μM. In addition, 2 μM TsIIIA did not induce a shift in the current-voltage relationship of hNav1.8. Taken together, the hNav1.8 peptide inhibitor TsIIIA provides a pharmacological probe for sodium channels and a potential therapeutic agent for pain.
3. The T-1 conotoxin μ-SrVA from the worm hunting marine snail Conus spurius preferentially blocks the human NaV1.5 channel
Angélica Ruelas-Callejas, Manuel B Aguilar, Rogelio Arteaga-Tlecuitl, Juan Carlos Gomora, Estuardo López-Vera Peptides. 2022 Oct;156:170859. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2022.170859. Epub 2022 Aug 5.
Conotoxin sr5a had previously been identified in the vermivorous cone snail Conus spurius. This conotoxin is a highly hydrophobic peptide, with the sequence IINWCCLIFYQCC, which has a cysteine pattern "CC-CC" belonging to the T-1 superfamily. It is well known that this superfamily binds to molecular targets such as calcium channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and exerts an effect mainly in the central nervous system. However, its effects on other molecular targets are not yet defined, suggesting the potential of newly relevant molecular interactions. To find and demonstrate a potential molecular target for conotoxin sr5a electrophysiological assays were performed on three subtypes of voltage-activated sodium channels (NaV1.5, NaV1.6, and NaV1.7) expressed in HEK-293 cells with three different concentrations of sr5a(200, 400, and 600 nM). 200 nM sr5a blocked currents mediated by NaV1.5 by 33%, NaV1.6 by 14%, and NaV1.7 by 7%. The current-voltage (I-V) relationships revealed that conotoxin sr5a exhibits a preferential activity on the NaV1.5 subtype; the activation of NaV1.5 conductance was not modified by the blocking effect of sr5a, but sr5a affected the voltage-dependence of inactivation of channels. Since peptide sr5a showed a specific activity for a sodium channel subtype, we can assign a pharmacological family and rename it as conotoxin µ-SrVA.