1. Kinetics of concomitant transfer and hydrolysis reactions catalysed by the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of streptomyces R61
J M Frère, J M Ghuysen, H R Perkins, M Nieto Biochem J. 1973 Nov;135(3):483-92. doi: 10.1042/bj1350483.
When Ac(2)-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala and either meso-diaminopimelic acid or Gly-l-Ala are exposed to the exocellular dd-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase of Streptomyces R61, transpeptidation reactions yielding Ac(2)-l-Lys-d-Ala-(d)-meso- diaminopimelic acid and Ac(2)-l-Lys-d-Ala-Gly-l-Ala occur concomitantly with the hydrolysis of the tripeptide into Ac(2)-l-Lys-d-Ala. The proportion of the enzyme activity which can be channelled in the transpeptidation and the hydrolysis pathways depends upon the pH and the polarity of the environment. Transpeptidation is favoured both by increasing the pH and by decreasing the water content of the reaction mixtures. Kinetics suggest that the reactions proceed through an ordered mechanism in which the acceptor molecule (meso-diaminopimelic acid or Gly-l-Ala) binds first to the enzyme. Both acceptors behave as non-competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis pathway. Transpeptidation is inhibited by high concentrations of Gly-l-Ala but not by high concentrations of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The occurrence on the enzyme of an additional inhibitory binding site for Gly-l-Ala is suggested.
2. Streptomyces DD-carboxypeptidases as transpeptidases. The specificity for amino compounds acting as carboxyl acceptors
H R Perkins, M Nieto, J M Frére, M Leyh-Bouille, J M Ghuysen Biochem J. 1973 Apr;131(4):707-18. doi: 10.1042/bj1310707.
The ability of the water-soluble dd-carboxypeptidases of Streptomyces strains albus G, R61, K11 and R39 to perform transpeptidation was studied. The donor was diacetyl-l-lysyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine, and a whole range of amino acids, peptides and structurally related amino compounds were tested for acceptor function. No compound tested was an acceptor for the enzyme from strain albus G whereas the enzymes from strains R61 and K11 could utilize with varying efficiency a wide range of substances including peptides with N-terminal glycine or d-alanine, omega-amino acids, aminohexuronic acids, 6-aminopenicillanic acid and d-cycloserine. Certain peptides, when present in higher concentration, inhibited the transpeptidation observed at lower concentration. The enzyme from strain R39 would not use any dipeptide as an acceptor, but a few compounds that were not glycine or alpha-amino acids of the d-configuration did function thus. These were d-cycloserine and the lactams of meso- or racemic-diaminoadipic acid.
3. Streptomyces K15 DD-peptidase-catalysed reactions with ester and amide carbonyl donors
M Nguyen-Distèche, M Leyh-Bouille, S Pirlot, J M Frère, J M Ghuysen Biochem J. 1986 Apr 1;235(1):167-76. doi: 10.1042/bj2350167.
In water, the purified 26 000-Mr membrane-bound DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 hydrolyses the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate (release of D-lactate) and the amide carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (release of D-alanine) with accumulation of acyl- (Ac2-L-Lys-D-alanyl-)enzyme. Whereas hydrolysis of the ester substrate proceeds to completion, hydrolysis of the amide substrate is negligible because of the capacity of the K15 DD-peptidase for utilizing the released D-alanine in a transfer reaction (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala----Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala) that maintains the concentration of the amide substrate at a constant level. In the presence of an amino acceptor X-NH2 (Gly-Gly or Gly-L-Ala) related to the Streptomyces peptidoglycan, both amide and ester carbonyl donors are processed without detectable accumulation of acyl-enzyme. Under proper conditions, the acceptor activity of water and, in the case of the amide substrate, the acceptor activity of the released D-alanine can be totally overcome so that the two substrates are quantitatively converted into transpeptidated product Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-NH-X (and hydrolysis is prevented). Experimental evidence suggests that the amino acceptor modifies both the binding of the carbonyl donor to the enzyme and the ensuing rate of enzyme acylation.