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Useful derivative for the synthesis of branched peptides.

Fmoc-Amino Acids
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(2S)-2,6-bis(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonylamino)hexanoic acid
Fmoc-L-Lys(Fmoc)-OH; (2S)-2,6-bis(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonylamino)hexanoic acid
White powder
≥ 99.5% (Chiral HPLC)
1.278±0.06 g/cm3
Melting Point
130-140 °C
Boiling Point
835.2±65.0 °C
Store at 2-8 °C
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1. l-Arginine supplementation in severe asthma
Shu-Yi Liao, et al. JCI Insight. 2020 Jul 9;5(13):e137777. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.137777.
BACKGROUNDDysregulation of l-arginine metabolism has been proposed to occur in patients with severe asthma. The effects of l-arginine supplementation on l-arginine metabolite profiles in these patients are unknown. We hypothesized that individuals with severe asthma with low fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) would have fewer exacerbations with the addition of l-arginine to their standard asthma medications compared with placebo and would demonstrate the greatest changes in metabolite profiles.METHODSParticipants were enrolled in a single-center, crossover, double-blind l-arginine intervention trial at UCD. Subjects received placebo or l-arginine, dosed orally at 0.05 mg/kg (ideal body weight) twice daily. The primary end point was moderate asthma exacerbations. Longitudinal plasma metabolite levels were measured using mass spectrometry. A linear mixed-effect model with subject-specific intercepts was used for testing treatment effects.RESULTSA cohort of 50 subjects was included in the final analysis. l-Arginine did not significantly decrease asthma exacerbations in the overall cohort. Higher citrulline levels and a lower arginine availability index (AAI) were associated with higher FeNO (P = 0.005 and P = 2.51 × 10-9, respectively). Higher AAI was associated with lower exacerbation events. The eicosanoid prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) and Nα-acetyl-l-arginine were found to be good predictors for differentiating clinical responders and nonresponders.CONCLUSIONSThere was no statistically significant decrease in asthma exacerbations in the overall cohort with l-arginine intervention. PGH2, Nα-acetyl-l-arginine, and the AAI could serve as predictive biomarkers in future clinical trials that intervene in the arginine metabolome.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01841281.FUNDINGThis study was supported by NIH grants R01HL105573, DK097154, UL1 TR001861, and K08HL114882. Metabolomics analysis was supported in part by a grant from the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program program (TRDRP).
2. l-Lysine-Based Gelators for the Formation of Oleogels in Four Vegetable Oils
Qiannan Li, Jieying Zhang, Guiju Zhang, Baocai Xu Molecules. 2022 Feb 17;27(4):1369. doi: 10.3390/molecules27041369.
Supramolecular oleogel is a soft material with a three-dimensional structure, formed by the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators in oils; it shows broad application prospects in the food industry, environmental protection, medicine, and other fields. Among all the gelators reported, amino-acid-based compounds have been widely used to form organogels and hydrogels because of their biocompatibility, biodegradation, and non-toxicity. In this study, four Nα, Nε-diacyl-l-lysine gelators (i.e., Nα, Nε-dioctanoyl-l-lysine; Nα, Nε-didecanoyl-l-lysine; Nα, Nε-dilauroyl-l-lysine; and Nα, Nε-dimyristoyl-l-lysine) were synthesized and applied to prepare oleogels in four kinds of vegetable oils. Gelation ability is affected not only by the structure of the gelators but also by the composition of the oils. The minimum gel concentration (MGC) increased with the increase in the acyl carbon-chain length of the gelators. The strongest gelation ability was displayed in olive oil for the same gelator. Rheological properties showed that the mechanical strength and thermal stability of the oleogels varied with the carbon-chain length of the gelators and the type of vegetable oil. The microstructure of oleogels is closely related to the carbon-chain length of gelators, regardless of oil type. The highest oil-binding capacity (OBC) was obtained in soybean oil for all four gelators, and Nα, Nε-dimyristoyl-l-lysine showed the best performance for entrapping oils.
3. Highly branched poly(L-lysine)
Juan Rodríguez-Hernández, Marco Gatti, Harm-Anton Klok Biomacromolecules. 2003 Mar-Apr;4(2):249-58. doi: 10.1021/bm020096k.
This paper describes the synthesis of several novel water-soluble highly branched polypeptides. The synthesis starts with the ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine N-carboxyanhydride (Z-Lys NCA) or epsilon-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine N-carboxyanhydride (TFA-Lys NCA), followed by end functionalization of the peptide chain with N(alpha),N(epsilon)-di(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-l-lysine (N(alpha),N(epsilon)-diFmoc Lys). Deprotection of the N(alpha),N(epsilon)-diFmoc Lys end group affords two new primary amine groups that can initiate the polymerization of a second generation of branches. Repetition of this ring-opening polymerization-end functionalization sequence affords highly branched poly(epsilon-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) (poly(Z-Lys)) and poly(epsilon-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine) (poly(TFA-Lys)) in a small number of straightforward synthetic steps. Removal of the side-chain protective groups yields water-soluble and highly branched poly(l-lysine)s, which may be of potential interest for a variety of medical applications.
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