1.Detection of histone deacetylase inhibition by noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Sankaranarayanapillai M1, Tong WP, Maxwell DS, Pal A, Pang J, Bornmann WG, Gelovani JG, Ronen SM. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 May;5(5):1325-34.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new and promising antineoplastic agents. Current methods for monitoring early response rely on invasive biopsies or indirect blood-derived markers. Our goal was to develop a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based method to detect HDAC inhibition. The fluorinated lysine derivative Boc-Lys-(Tfa)-OH (BLT) was investigated as a (19)F MRS molecular marker of HDAC activity together with (31)P MRS of endogenous metabolites. In silico modeling of the BLT-HDAC interaction and in vitro MRS studies of BLT cleavage by HDAC confirmed BLT as a HDAC substrate. BLT did not affect cell viability or HDAC activity in PC3 prostate cancer cells. PC3 cells were treated, in the presence of BLT, with the HDAC inhibitor p-fluoro-suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (FSAHA) over the range of 0 to 10 micromol/L, and HDAC activity and MRS spectra were monitored. Following FSAHA treatment, HDAC activity dropped, reaching 53% of control at 10 micromol/L FSAHA.
2.Monitoring histone deacetylase inhibition in vivo: noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy method.
Sankaranarayanapillai M1, Tong WP, Yuan Q, Bankson JA, Dafni H, Bornmann WG, Soghomonyan S, Pal A, Ramirez MS, Webb D, Kaluarachchi K, Gelovani JG, Ronen SM. Mol Imaging. 2008 Mar-Apr;7(2):92-100.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are emerging as promising and selective antitumor agents. However, HDACis can lead to tumor stasis rather than shrinkage, in which case, traditional imaging methods are not adequate to monitor response. Consequently, novel approaches are needed. We have shown in cells that (19)F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable levels of the HDAC substrate Boc-Lys-TFA-OH (BLT) are inversely correlated with HDAC activity. We extended our investigations to a tumor xenograft model. Following intraperitoneal injection of BLT, its accumulation within the tumor was monitored by in vivo (19)F MRS. In animals treated with the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), tumoral BLT levels were higher by 77% and 132% on days 2 and 7 of treatment compared with pretreatment levels (n = 6; p < .05). In contrast, tumoral BLT levels remained unchanged in control animals and in normal tissue. Thus, (19)F MRS of BLT detected the effect of HDACi treatment as early as day 2 of treatment.