1.A 'conovenomic' analysis of the milked venom from the mollusk-hunting cone snail Conus textile--the pharmacological importance of post-translational modifications.
Bergeron ZL1, Chun JB, Baker MR, Sandall DW, Peigneur S, Yu PY, Thapa P, Milisen JW, Tytgat J, Livett BG, Bingham JP. Peptides. 2013 Nov;49:145-58. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 18.
Cone snail venoms provide a largely untapped source of novel peptide drug leads. To enhance the discovery phase, a detailed comparative proteomic analysis was undertaken on milked venom from the mollusk-hunting cone snail, Conus textile, from three different geographic locations (Hawai'i, American Samoa and Australia's Great Barrier Reef). A novel milked venom conopeptide rich in post-translational modifications was discovered, characterized and named α-conotoxin TxIC. We assign this conopeptide to the 4/7 α-conotoxin family based on the peptide's sequence homology and cDNA pre-propeptide alignment. Pharmacologically, α-conotoxin TxIC demonstrates minimal activity on human acetylcholine receptor models (100 μM, <5% inhibition), compared to its high paralytic potency in invertebrates, PD50 = 34.2 nMol kg(-1). The non-post-translationally modified form, [Pro](2,8)[Glu](16)α-conotoxin TxIC, demonstrates differential selectivity for the α3β2 isoform of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with maximal inhibition of 96% and an observed IC50 of 5.