1.Inhibitors of tripeptidyl peptidase II. 2. Generation of the first novel lead inhibitor of cholecystokinin-8-inactivating peptidase: a strategy for the design of peptidase inhibitors.
Ganellin CR1, Bishop PB, Bambal RB, Chan SM, Law JK, Marabout B, Luthra PM, Moore AN, Peschard O, Bourgeat P, Rose C, Vargas F, Schwartz JC. J Med Chem. 2000 Feb 24;43(4):664-74.
The cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8)-inactivating peptidase is a serine peptidase which has been shown to be a membrane-bound isoform of tripeptidyl peptidase II (EC 22.214.171.124). It cleaves the neurotransmitter CCK-8 sulfate at the Met-Gly bond to give Asp-Tyr(SO(3)H)-Met-OH + Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2). In seeking a reversible inhibitor of this peptidase, the enzymatic binding subsites were characterized using a fluorimetric assay based on the hydrolysis of the artificial substrate Ala-Ala-Phe-amidomethylcoumarin. A series of di- and tripeptides having various alkyl or aryl side chains was studied to determine the accessible volume for binding and to probe the potential for hydrophobic interactions. From this initial study the tripeptides Ile-Pro-Ile-OH (K(i) = 1 microM) and Ala-Pro-Ala-OH (K(i) = 3 microM) and dipeptide amide Val-Nvl-NHBu (K(i) = 3 microM) emerged as leads. Comparison of these structures led to the synthesis of Val-Pro-NHBu (K(i) = 0.
2.Total enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin CCK-5.
Xiang H1, Xiang GY, Lu ZM, Guo L, Eckstein H. Amino Acids. 2004 Aug;27(1):101-5. Epub 2004 Mar 16.
This paper describes the enzymatic synthesis of the C-terminal fragment H-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 of cholecystokinin. Immobilized enzymes were used for the formation of all peptide bonds except thermolysin. Beginning the synthesis with phenylacetyl (PhAc) glycine carboxamidomethyl ester (OCam) and H-Trp-OMe by using immobilized papain as biocatalyst in buffered ethyl acetate, the dipeptide methyl ester was then coupled directly with Met-OEt.HCl by alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in a solvent free system. For the 3+2 coupling PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt had to be converted into its OCam ester. The other fragment H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 resulted from the coupling of Cbo-Asp(OMe)-OH with H-Phe-NH2.HCl and thermolysin as catalyst, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Finally PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 was obtained in a smooth reaction from PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OCam and H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 with alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in acetonitrile, followed by basic hydrolysis of the beta-methyl ester.
3."To serve and protect": enzyme inhibitors as radiopeptide escorts promote tumor targeting.
Nock BA1, Maina T, Krenning EP, de Jong M. J Nucl Med. 2014 Jan;55(1):121-7. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.113.129411. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
Radiolabeled octreotide analogs are most successfully being applied today in clinical cancer imaging and treatment. Propagation of this paradigm to other radiopeptide families has been greatly hampered by the inherent poor metabolic stability of systemically administered peptide analogs. We hypothesized that the in vivo coadministration of specific enzyme inhibitors would improve peptide bioavailability and hence tumor uptake. Through single coinjection of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor phosphoramidon (PA), we were able to provoke remarkable rises in the percentages of circulating intact somatostatin, gastrin, and bombesin radiopeptides in mouse models, resulting in a remarkable increase in uptake in tumor xenografts in mice.
4.Synthesis and biological evaluation of cholecystokinin analogs in which the Asp-Phe-NH2 moiety has been replaced by a 3-amino-7-phenylheptanoic acid or a 3-amino-6-(phenyloxy)hexanoic acid.
Amblard M1, Rodriguez M, Lignon MF, Galas MC, Bernad N, Artis-Noël AM, Hauad L, Laur J, Califano JC, Aumelas A, et al. J Med Chem. 1993 Oct 1;36(20):3021-8.
Boc-Tyr(SO3H)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-2-phenylethyl ester (JMV180), an analog of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), shows interesting biological activities behaving as an agonist at the high-affinity CCK binding sites and as an antagonist at the low-affinity CCK binding sites in rat pancreatic acini. Although we did not observe any major hydrolysis of the ester bond of Boc-Tyr(SO3H)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-2-phenylethyl ester in our in vitro studies, we were aware of a possible and rapid cleavage of this ester bond during in vivo studies. To improve the stability of Boc-Tyr(SO3H)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-2-phenylethyl ester, we decided to synthesize analogs in which the ester bond would be replaced by a carba (CH2-CH2) linkage. We synthesized the 3-amino-7-phenylheptanoic acid (beta-homo-Aph) with the R configuration in order to mimic the Asp-2-phenylethyl ester moiety and the 3-amino-6-(phenyloxy)hexanoic acid (H-beta-homo-App-OH), an analog of H-beta-homo-Aph-OH in which a methylene group has been replaced by an oxygen.