1.Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers.
Roth T1, Urpi Bertran R, Latza A, Andörfer-Lang K, Hügelschäffer C, Pöhlein M, Puchta R, Placht C, Maid H, Bauer W, van Eldik R. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Apr;407(11):3023-34. doi: 10.1007/s00216-014-8295-5. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated.
Pham LN1, Thames AT, White FD, Xiang KR, Sykora RE. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2012 Dec 1;68(Pt 12):m1531. doi: 10.1107/S1600536812047289. Epub 2012 Nov 24.
The title compound, [Tb(NCS)3(C18H15OP)3], contains a six-coordinate Tb(II) cation surrounded by three O-bound triphenyl-phosphine oxide ligands and three N-bound thio-cyanate ligands, each in a fac arrangement. There are two crystallographically unique Tb(III) atoms in the asymmetric unit. One Tb(III) atom resides on a threefold rotation axis, while the other has no imposed crystallographic symmetry. The thio-cyanate ligands are bound through N atoms, illustrating the hard-hard bonding principles of metal complex chemistry.
3.Targeted synthesis of electroactive porous organic frameworks containing triphenyl phosphine moieties.
Pei C1, Ben T, Guo H, Xu J, Deng F, Xiang Z, Cao D, Qiu S. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2013 Sep 2;371(2000):20120312. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0312. Print 2013 Oct 13.
A novel electroactive porous aromatic framework (JUC-Z4-Cl) was designed and synthesized via Yamamoto-type Ullmann cross-coupling reaction with the monomer tris(4-chlorophenyl)phosphine. By simple redox chemical reactions, stable, reductive, porous polytri(p-phenyl)phosphine (JUC-Z4) and polytri(p-phenyl)phosphine oxide (JUC-Z5) could be obtained as off-white powders. The structures of JUC-Z4 and JUC-Z5 were confirmed using magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, etc. The microporous architectures exhibit high stability (471°C for JUC-Z4 and 484°C for JUC-Z5) and large surface area (793 and 648 m² g⁻¹ for JUC-Z4 and JUC-Z5, respectively). JUC-Z4 also exhibits efficient recognition ability of greenhouse gases from dry air.
4.Gas chromatographic determination of phosphate-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers from waste electrical and electronic equipment.
Roth T1, Urpi Bertran R, Pöhlein M, Wolf M, van Eldik R. J Chromatogr A. 2012 Nov 2;1262:188-95. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.08.070. Epub 2012 Aug 28.
Two methods for the determination of phosphate-based flame retardants (PFRs) and similar organophosphates (OPs) were developed. Two gas chromatographic systems were applied, one equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC/MS), the other with a specific phosphorus-nitrogen detector (GC/PND). A procedure of ultrasonic supported extraction and precipitation (USSE) was applied and verified using in-house produced reference materials. Twelve polymer parts of electrical and electronic devices, and eight polymer references were analysed for their PFR contents. The results show that the methods are capable of identifying PFRs in concentration ranges from 3 μg L(-1) (tricresyl phosphate, TCP) to 12 μg L(-1) (cresyl diphenyl phosphate, CDP) on GC/PND and from 110 μg L(-1) (triphenyl phosphine oxide, TPPO) to 3250 μg L(-1) (tris(ethylhexyl) phosphate, TEHP) on GC/MS in reference solutions. LODs in polymer extracts range from 180 μg g(-1) (triphenyl phosphate, TPP) to 670 μg g(-1) (bisphenol-A-bis(diphenyl phosphate), BDP) on GC/PND and from 75 μg g(-1) (TPPO) to 780 μg g(-1) (BDP) on GC/MS.