1.Effects of lorazepam and WAY-200070 in larval zebrafish light/dark choice test.
Chen F1, Chen S1, Liu S1, Zhang C1, Peng G2. Neuropharmacology. 2015 Aug;95:226-33. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.03.022. Epub 2015 Apr 1.
Zebrafish larvae spend more time in brightly illuminated area when placed in a light/dark testing environment. Here we report that the anxiolytic drugs lorazepam and diazepam increased the time larval fish spent in the dark compartment in the light/dark test. Lorazepam did not affect the visual induced optokinetic response of larval fish. Gene expression levels of c-fos and crh were significantly increased in the hypothalamus of fish larvae underwent light/dark choice behavior, whilst lorazepam treatment alleviated the increased c-fos and crh expressions. Furthermore, we found estrogen receptor β gene expression level was increased in fish larvae underwent light/dark choice. We next examined effects of estrogen receptor modulators (estradiol, BPA, PHTPP, and WAY-200070) in the light/dark test. We identified WAY-200070, a highly selective ERβ agonist significantly altered the light/dark choice behavior of zebrafish larvae. Further investigation showed WAY-200070 treatment caused a reduction of crh expression level in the hypothalamus, suggesting activation of ERβ signaling attenuate the stress response.
2.In vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and antitumor effect of amphiphilic poly(L-amino acids) micelles loaded with a novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative.
Tang J1, Wang X, Wang T, Chen F, Zhou J. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Jan 23;51:157-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2013.09.016. Epub 2013 Sep 26.
Poly(amino acid)s are well-known as biodegradable and environmentally acceptable materials. In this study, a series of poly(L-aspartic acid)-b-poly(L-phenylalanine) (PAA-PPA) compounds with different degrees of polymerization were used to prepare copolymer micelles for a poorly water-soluble drug 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR, a novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative) and in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and antitumor efficacy of ATPR delivered by PAA-PPA micelles were evaluated. The area under the plasma concentration time curve AUC0→∞ of ATPR-loaded PAA20PPA20 micelles was 2.23 and 1.97 times higher than that of ATPR solution and ATPR CrmEL solution, respectively; In addition, the mean residence time (MRT) was increased 1.67 and 1.97-fold, respectively and the total body clearance (CL) was reduced 2.25 and 1.98-fold, respectively. The biodistribution study indicated that most of the ATPR in the ATPR-M group was distributed in the liver and there was delayed liver aggregation compared with the ATPR solution and ATPR CrmEL solution groups.
3.4-(3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide (ML267), a potent inhibitor of bacterial phosphopantetheinyl transferase that attenuates secondary metabolism and thwarts bacterial growth.
Foley TL1, Rai G, Yasgar A, Daniel T, Baker HL, Attene-Ramos M, Kosa NM, Leister W, Burkart MD, Jadhav A, Simeonov A, Maloney DJ. J Med Chem. 2014 Feb 13;57(3):1063-78. doi: 10.1021/jm401752p. Epub 2014 Jan 22.
4'-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) catalyze a post-translational modification essential to bacterial cell viability and virulence. We present the discovery and medicinal chemistry optimization of 2-pyridinyl-N-(4-aryl)piperazine-1-carbothioamides, which exhibit submicromolar inhibition of bacterial Sfp-PPTase with no activity toward the human orthologue. Moreover, compounds within this class possess antibacterial activity in the absence of a rapid cytotoxic response in human cells. An advanced analogue of this series, ML267 (55), was found to attenuate production of an Sfp-PPTase-dependent metabolite when applied to Bacillus subtilis at sublethal doses. Additional testing revealed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and chemical genetic studies implicated efflux as a mechanism for resistance in Escherichia coli . Additionally, we highlight the in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of compound 55 to further demonstrate the potential utility of this small-molecule inhibitor.
4.The NK1 receptor antagonist N-acetyl-L-tryptophan reduces dyskinesia in a hemi-parkinsonian rodent model.
Thornton E1, Hassall MM2, Corrigan F2, Vink R2. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 May;20(5):508-13. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.02.008. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
BACKGROUND: Dyskinesia or abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) are a disabling effect of chronic L-DOPA administration and consequent pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors. This abnormal activation causes maladaptive changes including upregulation of FosB expression in dynorphin containing striatal cells. Substance P (SP) is co-localized within dynorphin positive cells and is increased within the substantia nigra by L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) treatment. Accordingly, we determined if treatment with a SP NK1 receptor antagonist reduced the onset of L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) in the hemi-parkinsonian rodent model.