1.Toll-like receptors mediate induction of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in human corneal epithelial cells.
Ma P;Wang Z;Pflugfelder SC;Li DQ Exp Eye Res. 2010 Jan;90(1):130-6. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2009.09.021. Epub 2009 Sep 30.
Human peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are a novel family of pattern recognition receptors, and also act as anti-bacterial proteins. This study was to explore the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated regulation of PGLYRPs in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Fresh human donor corneoscleral tissues were used to prepare cryosections. Primary HCECs, established from limbal explants, were treated with microbial ligands to TLRs 1-9 for 4-48 h, with or without pretreatment of TLR antibodies, NFkB inhibitor, or siRNA transfection. The mRNA of PGLYRPs was evaluated by RT and real-time PCR, and their proteins and NFkB activation were determined by immunostaining and Western blot. The nuclear IRF3 activity was quantified using an ELISA-based TransAM kit. PGLYRP-2, -3 and -4 were found to be expressed by human corneal epithelium while PGLYRP-1 was not detected. In primary HCEC cultures, PGLYRP-3 and -4 were constitutively expressed while PGLYRP-2 was largely inducible. PGLYRP-2 was induced by bacterial components, Pam3CSK4, PGN, flagellin and FSL-1, ligands for TLR2/1, 2, 5 and 2/6, respectively. Interestingly, PGLYRP-2 was strongest stimulated by polyI:C representing viral dsRNA.
2.Pegylated bisacycloxypropylcysteine, a diacylated lipopeptide ligand of TLR6, plays a host-protective role against experimental Leishmania major infection.
Pandey SP;Chandel HS;Srivastava S;Selvaraj S;Jha MK;Shukla D;Ebensen T;Guzman CA;Saha B J Immunol. 2014 Oct 1;193(7):3632-43. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1400672. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
TLRs recognize pathogen-expressed Ags and elicit host-protective immune response. Although TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6, recognizing different ligands, differences in the functions of these heterodimers remain unknown. In this study, we report that in Leishmania major-infected macrophages, the expression of TLR1 and TLR2, but not TLR6, increased; TLR2-TLR2 association increased, but TLR2-TLR6 association diminished. Lentivirus-expressed TLR1-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or TLR2-shRNA administration reduced, but TLR6-shRNA increased L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Corroboratively, Pam3CSK4 (TLR1-TLR2 ligand) and peptidoglycan (TLR2 ligand) increased L. major infection but reduced TLR9 expression, whereas pegylated bisacycloxypropylcysteine (BPPcysMPEG; TLR2-TLR6 ligand) reduced L. major number in L. major-infected macrophages, accompanied by increased TLR9 expression, higher IL-12 production, and inducible NO synthase expression. Whereas MyD88, Toll/IL-1R adaptor protein, and TNFR-α-associated factor 6 recruitments to TLR2 were not different in Pam3CSK4-, peptidoglycan-, or BPPcysMPEG-treated macrophages, only BPPcysMPEG enhanced p38MAPK and activating transcription factor 2 activation.
3.Phloretin as a Potent Natural TLR2/1 Inhibitor Suppresses TLR2-Induced Inflammation.
Kim J;Durai P;Jeon D;Jung ID;Lee SJ;Park YM;Kim Y Nutrients. 2018 Jul 5;10(7). pii: E868. doi: 10.3390/nu10070868.
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) responses are involved in various inflammatory immune disorders. Phloretin is a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid that is abundant in fruit. Here, we investigated whether the anti-inflammatory activity of phloretin is mediated through TLR2 pathways, and whether phloretin acts as an inhibitor of TLR2/1 heterodimerization using the TLR2/1 agonist Pam₃CSK₄. We tested the effects of phloretin on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production induced by various TLRs using known TLR-specific agonists. Phloretin significantly inhibited Pam₃CSK₄-induced TRL2/1 signaling in Raw264.7 cells compared to TLR signaling induced by the other agonists tested. Therefore, we further tested the effects of phloretin in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293-hTLR2 cells induced by Pam₃CSK₄, and confirmed that phloretin has comparable inhibition of TLR2/1 heterodimerization to that induced by the known TLR2 inhibitor CU-CPT22. Moreover, phloretin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-8 in Pam₃CSK₄-induced HEK293-hTLR2 cells, whereas it did not significantly reduce these cytokines under Pam₂CSK₄-induced activation. Western blot results showed that phloretin significantly suppressed Pam₃CSK₄-induced TLR2 and NF-κB p65 expression.