1. Behavioural activity of angiotensin II (3-7)4Phe--analogue of natural fragment 3-7 of angiotensin II
Z Hoły, K Wiśniewski, A Jachimowicz, J Braszko Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 1996;41(2):191-201.
A study was made of the influence of pentapeptide 3-7 angiotensin II [AII(3-7)], its analogue 3-7(4)Phe [AII(3-7)4Phe] and angiotensin II (AII) on the behaviour of adult male rats. The motility, stereotypy, spatial performance, learning of conditioned and passive avoidance responses allowing to avoid aversive stimulation were estimated. Examined peptides at the dose 1 nmol injected intracerebroventricularly 15 min before the experiment did not produce specific changes in psychomotor activity in the "open field" test and in retention of the spatial task in the Morris water maze. The rate of acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses was stimulated by AII(3-7)4Phe, AII(3-7) and AII administration. In the passive avoidance situation AII improved retention of the responses whereas analogue AII(3-7)4Phe and fragment 3-7 caused similar though less pronounced effect. All the peptides applied immediately before the experiment intensified stereotypy, a behaviour evoked by of apomorphine-1 mg/kg and amphetamine-7.5 mg/kg intraperitonealy injection. These results show similar psychotropic activity of analogue AII(3-7)4Phe, comparable with the activity of natural fragment 3-7 of angiotensin II.
2. Synthesis of novel adamantylacetyl derivative of peptidoglycan monomer--biological evaluation of immunomodulatory peptidoglycan monomer and respective derivatives with lipophilic substituents on amino group
D Ljevaković, J Tomasić, V Sporec, B H Spoljar, I Hanzl-Dujmovic Bioorg Med Chem. 2000 Oct;8(10):2441-9. doi: 10.1016/s0968-0896(00)00172-3.
Novel synthetic analogue of immunomodulatory peptidoglycan monomer 1 (PGM), (adamant-1-yl)-CH2CO-PGM (2), was prepared by acylation of epsilon-amino group of diaminopimelic acid with symmetrical (adamant-1-yl)-acetic acid anhydride in the presence of triethylamine. The product was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, followed by ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex C-25. The susceptibility of (adamant-1-yl)-CH2CO-PGM to hydrolysis with N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase was demonstrated, and the product of hydrolysis, (adamant-1-yl) CH2CO-pentapeptide 3, was characterized. Both 2 and 3 are water soluble and non-pyrogenic compounds. Immunomodulatory activity of PGM (adamant-1-yl)-CH2CO-PGM and structurally related derivative Boc-Tyr-PGM was compared in experiments in vivo, in mice, using ovalbumin (OVA) as an antigen. All three tested compounds exhibited comparable immunostimulating effects with respect to the induction of anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulin G. The results of evaluation of biological activity show that the substitution of free amino group in the parent peptidoglycan molecule with bulky lipophilic substituents did not affect the susceptibility to hydrolysis with N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase and did not alter markedly the immunostimulating activity. The results also indicate that the free amino group in the peptide chain is not a necessary requirement in the mechanism of immunostimulation of tested immunomodulators.
3. The Effects of a Novel Series of KTTKS Analogues on Cytotoxicity and Proteolytic Activity
Urszula Tałałaj, Paulina Uścinowicz, Irena Bruzgo, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Ilona Zaręba, Agnieszka Markowska Molecules. 2019 Oct 15;24(20):3698. doi: 10.3390/molecules24203698.
KTTKS is a matrikine that originates from the proteolytic hydrolysis of collagen. This peptide stimulates ECM production and types I and III collagen expression in vitro. A more stable form of KTTKS is pal-KTTKS, known as Matrixyl® or palmitoyl pentapeptide-3. A series of novel pentapeptides, analogues of KTTKS with the general formula X-KTTKS-OH(NH2), where X = acetyl, lipoyl, palmitoyl residues, was designed and synthesized. Their effect on amidolytic activity of urokinase, thrombin, trypsin, plasmin, t-PA, and kallikrein were tested. Cytotoxic tests on fibroblasts, as well as collagen and DNA biosynthesis tests for selected peptides, were also carried out. The test results showed that the most active plasmin inhibitors were palmitoyl peptides, whether in acid or amide form. No biological effects of lysine modification to arginine in the synthesized peptides were found. None of the synthesized peptides was not cytotoxic on fibroblasts, and three of them showed cell growth. These three compounds showed no concentration-activity relationship in the collagen and DNA biosynthesis assays.