1. Leukotriene D4 inhibits Na+ uptake through cAMP and PLC pathways in primary cultured renal proximal tubular cells
S H Park, H S Park, J C Lee, H B Lee, H J Han Kidney Blood Press Res . 1999;22(3):106-13. doi: 10.1159/000025915.
Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is one of the slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis and is reported to have a diverse response including the mediation of glomerular nephritis. However, little is known about the functions of LTD4 and its mechanisms of action in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of LTD4 on Na+ uptake and its related signal transduction pathways in PTCs. LTD4 (>10(-9) M) significantly inhibited the Na+ uptake after 15 min (in nmol/mg protein: controls 431.7+/-11.4 vs. LTD4 (10(-9) M) 355.0+/-23.6; p<0. 05); and its effect was blocked by MK-571 (10(-6) M), a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in PTCs. Preincubation with cilastatin, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor, and polyclonal antibody against renal dipeptidase potentiated the inhibitory effect of LTD4 on Na+ uptake. SQ 22536 (10(-6) M), an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, and the myristoylated protein kinase A inhibitor amide 14-22 (PKI; 10(-5) M) blocked the effect of LTD4 on Na+ uptake (in nmol/mg protein: LTD4 349.9+/-18.5 vs. SQ 22536+LTD4 476.5+/-22.0 and PKI+LTD4 440.3+/-19. 3; p<0.05), and LTD4 induced an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suggesting the involvement of cAMP in the inhibition of Na+ uptake. In addition, U 73122 (10(-6) M) and neomycin (10(-4) M), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors, W-7 (10(-4) M), a calmodulin antagonist, and bisindolylmaleimide I, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, blocked the LTD4-induced inhibition of Na+ uptake, strongly suggesting involvement of the PLC-PKC signal pathways in the effect of LTD4. LTD4 significantly increased [Ca2]i by 49+/-7% as compared with baseline. TMB-8 (10(-5) M) and BAPTA/AM (10(-5) M), intracellular calcium mobilization blockers, completely blocked the LTD4-induced inhibition of Na+ uptake (in nmol/mg protein: LTD4 347.6+/-19.0 vs. TMB-8+LTD4 436.4+/-22.3 and BAPTA/AM+LTD4 419.9+/-14.3; p<0.05); however, EGTA (1 mM), a calcium chelator, partially blocked the LTD4-induced inhibition of Na+ uptake. In conclusion, LTD4-induced inhibition of Na+ uptake may be involved in both cAMP and PLC-PKC signal pathways in PTCs. In addition, Ca2+, which comes from the intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, is primarily responsible for the LTD4-induced inhibition of Na+ uptake.
2. Modafinil inhibits K(Ca)3.1 currents and muscle contraction via a cAMP-dependent mechanism
Shinkyu Choi, Seikwan Oh, Moon Young Kim, Ji Aee Kim, Suk Hyo Suh, Ka Young Joo, Jae-Chul Jung, Seonghee Park Pharmacol Res . 2012 Jul;66(1):51-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2012.02.009.
Modafinil has been used as a psychostimulant for the treatment of narcolepsy. However, its primary mechanism of action remains elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of modafinil on K(Ca)3.1 channels and vascular smooth muscle contraction. K(Ca)3.1 currents and channel activity were measured using a voltage-clamp technique and inside-out patches in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) concentration was measured, and the phosphorylation of K(Ca)3.1 channel protein was examined using western blotting in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and/or primary cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Muscle contractions were recorded from mouse aorta and rat pulmonary artery by using a myograph developed in-house. Modafinil was found to inhibit K(Ca)3.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) of modafinil for the current inhibition was 6.8 ± 0.7 nM. The protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin also inhibited K(Ca)3.1 currents. The inhibitory effects of modafinil and forskolin on K(Ca)3.1 currents were blocked by the PKA inhibitors PKI(14-22) or H-89. In addition, modafinil relaxed blood vessels (mouse aorta and rat pulmonary artery) in a concentration-dependent manner. Modafinil increased cAMP concentrations in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts or primary cultured mouse aortic SMCs and phosphorylated K(Ca)3.1 channel protein in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. However, open probability and single-channel current amplitudes of K(Ca)3.1 channels were not changed by modafinil. From these results, we conclude that modafinil inhibits K(Ca)3.1 channels and vascular smooth muscle contraction by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, suggesting that modafinil can be used as a cAMP-dependent K(Ca)3.1 channel blocker and vasodilator.
3. RhoE is regulated by cyclic AMP and promotes fusion of human BeWo choriocarcinoma cells
Elizabeth A Linton, Xue Fang Goh, Gavin P Collett, Ian L Sargent, Christopher W G Redman PLoS One . 2012;7(1):e30453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030453.
Fusion of placental villous cytotrophoblasts with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast is essential for the maintenance of successful pregnancy, and disturbances in this process have been implicated in pathological conditions such as pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation. In this study we examined the role of the Rho GTPase family member RhoE in trophoblast differentiation and fusion using the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line, a model of villous cytotrophoblast fusion. Treatment of BeWo cells with the cell permeable cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) resulted in a strong upregulation of RhoE at 24 h, coinciding with the onset of fusion. Using the protein kinase A (PKA)-specific cAMP analogue N(6)-phenyl-cAMP, and a specific inhibitor of PKA (14-22 amide, PKI), we found that upregulation of RhoE by cAMP was mediated through activation of PKA signalling. Silencing of RhoE expression by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in dbcAMP-induced fusion. However, expression of differentiation markers human chorionic gonadotrophin and placental alkaline phosphatase was unaffected by RhoE silencing. Finally, we found that RhoE upregulation by dbcAMP was significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions in which cell fusion is impaired. These results show that induction of RhoE by cAMP is mediated through PKA and promotes BeWo cell fusion but has no effect on functional differentiation, supporting evidence that these two processes may be controlled by separate or diverging pathways.