1. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy
Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Yi Kong Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 14;19(2):573. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020573.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.
2. Protease-Activated Receptor PAR-4: An Inducible Switch between Thrombosis and Vascular Inflammation?
Anke C Fender, Bernhard H Rauch, Tobias Geisler, Karsten Schrör Thromb Haemost. 2017 Nov;117(11):2013-2025. doi: 10.1160/TH17-03-0219. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
Thrombin triggers activation of platelets through protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4. Both receptors are widely expressed and exert multiple platelet-independent functions. PAR signalling contributes to healing responses after injury, by promoting cytokine activity and cellular growth and mobility. Uncontrolled PAR activation, however, can prevent timely resolution of inflammation, enhance thrombogenic endothelial function and drive adverse remodelling. The specific role of PAR-4 in thromboinflammatory vascular disease has been largely underestimated, given the relatively limited expression of PAR-4 in non-platelet cells under healthy conditions. However, unlike PAR-1, PAR-4 expression adapts dynamically to numerous stimuli associated with thromboinflammation, including thrombin, angiotensin II, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), high glucose and redox stress, suggesting expression is switched on 'at need'. Prostacyclin negatively regulates PAR-4 expression at the post-transcriptional level, which may serve to fine-tune thrombin responses and limit these to the injury site. PAR-4 elicits inflammatory, mitogenic and proliferative actions not only in response to thrombin but also to numerous other inflammatory proteases, and can cross-talk with other receptor systems such as S1P and adenosine receptors. Accordingly, PAR-4 has emerged as a candidate player in vessel disease and cardiac post-infarction remodelling. Currently, PAR-4 is a particularly promising target for safer anti-thrombotic therapies. Recent studies with the PAR-4 antagonist BMS-986120 lend support to the concept that selective antagonism of PAR-4 may offer both an effective and safe anti-thrombotic therapy in the acute thrombotic setting as well as an anti-inflammatory strategy to prevent long-term progressive atherosclerotic disease in high-risk cardiovascular patients.
3. Inhibitors of protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4): a review of recent patents (2013-2021)
Xiangying Yu, Shanshan Li, Xiong Zhu, Yi Kong Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2022 Feb;32(2):153-170. doi: 10.1080/13543776.2022.2034786. Epub 2022 Feb 16.
Introduction: Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4), belonging to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), is expressed on the surface of Human platelets, and the activation of it can lead to platelets aggregation. Studies demonstrated that PAR4 inhibition protect mice from arterial/arteriolar thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and cerebral infarct, while do not affect the hemostatic responses integrity. Therefore, PAR4 has been a promising target for the development of anti-thrombotic agents. Areas covered: This review covers recent patents and literature on PAR4 and their application published between 2013 and 2021. Expert opinion: PAR4 is a promising anti-thrombotic target and PAR4 inhibitors are important biologically active compounds for the treatment of thrombosis. Most the recent patents and literature focus on PAR4 selective inhibitors, and BMS-986120 and BMS-986141, which were developed by BMS, have entered clinical trials. With the deep understanding of the crystal structures and biological functions of PAR4, we believe that many other novel types of molecules targeting PAR4 would enter the clinical studies or the market.