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QVD-OPH, also known as Quinoline-Val-Asp-Difluorophenoxymethylketone, is a selective, brain and cell permeable, highly potent and irreversible inhibitor of caspase-3 (IC50 = 25nm), caspase-1 (IC50 = 50nM), caspase-8 (IC50 = 100nM) and caspase-9 (IC50 = 430nM). It can be used in Alzheimer's studies relating to caspase-6, the cysteinyl protease involved in neurodegenerative conditions. As well it is an intermediate in the formation of Palinavir, a potent HIV protease inhibitor.

Peptide Inhibitors
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
(3S)-5-(2,6-difluorophenoxy)-3-[[(2S)-3-methyl-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)butanoyl]amino]-4-oxopentanoic acid
Q-VD-OPH; Quinoline-Val-Asp-Difluorophenoxymethylketone; quinoline-val-asp(OMe)-CH2-OPH
White to Off-white Solid Powder
1.346±0.06 g/cm3
Boiling Point
Store at -20°C
Soluble in DMSO
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1.Role of prosurvival molecules in the action of lidamycin toward human tumor cells.
Yang AJ;Shi WW;Li Y;Wang Z;Shao RG;Li DD;He QY Biomed Environ Sci. 2009 Jun;22(3):244-52. doi: 10.1016/S0895-3988(09)60052-0.
OBJECTIVE: ;Lidamycin, an enediyne antibiotic, leads to apoptosis and mitotic cell death of human tumor cells at high and low concentrations. The reason why tumor cells have distinct responses to lidamycin remains elusive. This study was to elucidate if cellular prosurvival molecules are involved in these responses.;METHODS: ;Cleavage of chromatin and DNA was observed by chromatin condensation and agarose gel electrophoresis. Accumulation of rhodamine 123 in lidamycin-treated cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Cell multinucleation was detected by staining with Hoechst 33342. Western blot and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) staining were used to analyze protein expression and senescence-like phenotype, respectively.;RESULTS: ;SIRT1 deacetylase remained unchanged in 0.5 nmol/L lidamycin whereas cleavage occurred when apoptosis was induced by lidamycin. Increased FOXO3a, SOD-1 and SOD-2 expression and transient phosphorylation of ERK were detected after exposure of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells to 0.5 nmol/L lidamycin. High expressions of SIRT1 and Akt were found in colon carcinoma HCT116 p53 knock-out cells exposed to lidamycin. Degradation of PARP and p53 by lidamycin as a substitute for SIRT1 and Akt was confirmed with caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh and proteasome inhibitor MG132.
2.Doxorubicin-induced platelet procoagulant activities: an important clue for chemotherapy-associated thrombosis.
Kim SH;Lim KM;Noh JY;Kim K;Kang S;Chang YK;Shin S;Chung JH Toxicol Sci. 2011 Nov;124(1):215-24. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr222. Epub 2011 Aug 24.
Thrombotic risk associated with chemotherapy including doxorubicin (DOX) has been frequently reported; yet, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report that DOX can induce procoagulant activity in platelets, an important contributor to thrombus formation. In human platelets, DOX increased phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and PS-bearing microparticle (MP) generation. Consistently, DOX-treated platelets and generated MPs induced thrombin generation, a representative marker for procoagulant activity. DOX-induced PS exposure appeared to be from intracellular Ca²⁺ increase and ATP depletion, which resulted in the activation of scramblase and inhibition of flippase. Along with this, apoptosis was induced by DOX as determined by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), cytochrome c release, Bax translocation, and caspase-3 activation. A Ca²⁺ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, and antioxidants (vitamin C and trolox) can attenuate DOX-induced PS exposure and procoagulant activity significantly, suggesting that Ca²⁺, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in DOX-enhanced procoagulant activity. Importantly, rat in vivo thrombosis model demonstrated that DOX could manifest prothrombotic effects through the mediation of platelet procoagulant activity, which was accompanied by increased PS exposure and Δψ dissipation in platelets.
3.Chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.
Raszewski G;Lemieszek MK;Łukawski K;Juszczak M;Rzeski W Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Feb;116(2):158-67. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12285. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
Our previous in vivo studies showed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CM) in a mixture dermally administered, strongly inhibited cholinesterase activity in plasma and the brain and were very toxic to the rat central nervous system. In this work, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity have not been elucidated. We used human undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells to study mechanisms of pesticide-induced neuronal cell death. It was found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its mixture with cypermethrin (CPF+CM) induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assays. Pesticide-induced SH-SY5Y cell death was characterized by concentration-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as an increase in the caspase 3 activation. Pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh produced a slight but significant reversal effect of pesticide-induced toxicity indicating that the major caspase pathways are not integral to CPF- and CPF+CM-induced cell death. Furthermore, signal transduction inhibitors PD98059, SL-327, SB202190, SP600125 and mecamylamine failed to attenuate pesticides effect. Atropine exhibited minimal ability to reverse toxicity. Finally, it was shown that inhibition of TNF-α by pomalidomide attenuated CPF-/CPF+CM-induced apoptosis.

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