1. First biological conversion of chiral heterophosphonate derivative - Scaling and paths of conversion discussion
Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda, et al. Bioorg Chem. 2019 Dec;93:102751. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.01.047. Epub 2019 Jan 30.
Presented work describes the first approach for the biocatalytic resolution of racemic mixtures of heterophosphonate derivative. Penicillium funiculosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were successfully applied for the biological conversion of racemic mixture of 1-amino-1-(3'-pyridyl)methylphosphonic acid 3. Both microorganisms carried out the kinetically driven process leading to conversion of one from the substrate enantiomers, leaving the second one unreacted. Application of R. mucilaginosa allowed obtaining pure enantiomer of the substrate (yield 100%, e.e 100% - unreacted isomer) after 24 h of biotransformation of 3 in the laboratory scale process (Method E), applying biocatalyst pre-treatment step - 24 h of starvation. In case of other biocatalyst, application of whole cells of P. funiculosum in laboratory scale process, also resulted in conversion of the racemic mixture of substrate 3via oxidative deamination into ketone derivative, which was then bioreduced (second step of the process) into 1-hydroxy-1-(3'-pyridyl)methylphosphonic acid 4. This time two products were isolated: unreacted substrate and hydroxy compound 4. Conversion degree ranged from 30% (standard procedure, method A) to even 70% (with extra addition of sodium pyruvate - method B2). However, in this case, bioconversion was not enantioselective - products: amino- and hydroxyderivative were obtained as racemic mixtures. Both biocatalysts were also tested towards the scaling so other biocatalytic procedures were introduced - with immobilized fungal mycelium. In case of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa this approach failed (data not shown) but Penicillium funiculosum turned out to be active and also selective. Thus, application of this biocatalyst in the half-preparative scale, continuous-flow bioprocess (Method C2) resulted in the obtaining of pure S-3 (100% e.e.) isomer with the 100% of conversion degree, without any side products. Recorded NMR spectra allowed confirming the reaction progress and its selectivity and also postulating possible mechanism of conversion.
2. Phosphonates enantiomers receiving with fungal enzymatic systems
Monika Serafin-Lewańczuk, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2021 Apr 7;20(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s12934-021-01573-8.
Background: Phosphonates derivatives are in the area of interests because of their unique chemical-physical features. These compounds manifest variety of biological interactions within the sensitive living cells, including impact on particular enzymes activities. Biological "cause and effect" interactions are based upon the specific matching between the structures and/or compounds and this is usually the result of proper optical configurations of particular chiral moieties. Presented research is targeted to the phosphonates with the heteroatom incorporated in their side functionalities. Such molecules are described as possible substrates of bioconversion for the first time lately and this field is not fully explored. Results: Presented research is targeted to the synthesis of pure hetero-phosphonates enantiomers. The catalytic activity of yeasts and moulds were tested towards two substrates: the thienyl and imidazole phosphonates to resolve their racemic mixtures. Biotransformations conditions differed depending on the outcome, what included changing of following parameters: type of cultivation media, bioprocess duration (24-72 h), additional biocatalyst pre-treatment (24-48 h starvation step triggering the secondary metabolism). (S)-1-amino-1-(3-thienyl)methylphosphonate was produced with the assistance of R. mucilaginosa or A. niger (e.e. up to 98% and yield up to 100%), starting from the 3 mM of substrate racemic mixture. Bioconversion of racemic mixture of 3 mM of (1-amino-1-(4-imidazole)methylphosphonic acid) resulted in the synthesis of S-isomer (up to 95% of e.e.; 100% of yield) with assistance of R. mucilaginosa. 24 h biotransformation was conducted with biomass preincubated under 48-hour starvation conditions. Such stereoselective resolution of the racemic mixtures of substrates undergoes under kinetic control with the conversion of one from the enantiomers. Conclusions: Composition of the culturing media and pre-incubation in conditions of nutrient deficiency were significant factors influencing the results of kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures of phosphonic substrates and influencing the economic side of the biocatalysis e.g. by determining the duration of whole biocatalytic process.
3. Biocatalytic resolution of enantiomeric mixtures of 1-aminoethanephosphonic acid
Małgorzata Brzezińska-Rodak, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab, Ewa Zymańczyk-Duda, Paweł Kafarski Molecules. 2011 Jul 14;16(7):5896-904. doi: 10.3390/molecules16075896.
Several fungal strains, namely Bauveria bassiana, Cuninghamella echinulata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum and Cladosporium herbarum, were used as biocatalysts to resolve racemic mixtures of 1-aminoethanephosphonic acid using L/D amino acid oxidase activity. The course of reaction was analyzed by 31P-NMR in the presence of cyclodextrin used as chiral discriminating agent. The best result (42% e.e of R-isomer) was obtained with a strain of Cuninghamella echinulata.