1.Phosphorylation of high mobility group 14 protein by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases.
Walton GM, Spiess J, Gill GN. J Biol Chem. 1982 Apr 25;257(8):4661-8.
Chromosomal high mobility group (HMG) proteins have been examined as substrates for cGMP-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Of the four HMG proteins only HMG 14 contained a major high affinity site which could be phosphorylated by both enzymes, preferentially by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. One mol of 32P was incorporated/mol of HMG 14. Kinetic analysis revealed apparent Km and Vmax of 40.5 microM and 14.7 mumol/min/mg, respectively, for cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and 123 microM and 11.1 mumol/min/mg, respectively, for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Tryptic maps of 32P-labeled phosphopeptides of HMG 14 demonstrated phosphorylation of the same site by both enzymes. The tryptic fragment containing the major phosphorylation site was identified by amino acid composition and sequence as HMG 14 (residues 4-13): H-Lys-Val-Ser(P)-Ser-Ala-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Lys-OH. HMG 14 and HMG 17 also contained minor sites which could be phosphorylated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase.
2.Fmoc/solid-phase synthesis of Tyr(P)-containing peptides through t-butyl phosphate protection.
Perich JW1, Reynolds EC. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1991 Jun;37(6):572-5.
The synthesis of Tyr(P)-containing peptides by the use of Fmoc-Tyr(PO3Me2)-OH in Fmoc/solid phase synthesis is complicated since, firstly, piperidine causes cleavage of the methyl group from the -Tyr(PO3Me2)-residue during peptide synthesis and, secondly, harsh conditions are needed for its final cleavage. A very simple method for the synthesis of Tyr(P)-containing peptides using t-butyl phosphate protection is described. The protected phosphotyrosine derivative, Fmoc-Tyr(PO3tBu2)-OH was prepared in high yield from Fmoc-Tyr-OH by a one-step procedure which employed di-t-butyl N,N-diethyl-phosphoramidite as the phosphorylation reagent. The use of this derivative in Fmoc/solid phase peptide synthesis is demonstrated by the preparation of the Tyr(P)-containing peptides, Ala-Glu-Tyr(P)-Ser-Ala and Ser-Ser-Ser-Tyr(P)-Tyr(P).
3.Further studies into the Boc/solid-phase synthesis of Ser(P)- and Thr(P)-containing peptides.
Perich JW1, Terzi E, Carnazzi E, Seyer R, Trifilieff E. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1994 Oct;44(4):305-12.
The Ser(P)-containing peptide corresponding to phospholamban 11-19, Ac-Ala-Ile-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser(P)-Thr-Ile-Glu-NH2, was prepared by the use of Boc-Ser(PO3Ph2)-OH in Boc/solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by HF cleavage of the peptide from the polystyrene resin and subsequent platinum-mediated hydrogenolytic cleavage of the phenyl phosphate groups. A study of the HF deprotection step showed that extensive dephosphorylation of the Ser(PO3Ph2)-residue occurred using three commonly used HF conditions and gave rise to large quantities of the Ser-containing peptide. The subsequent study of model peptide systems under standard HF conditions established firstly that the extent of dephosphorylation was dependent on the HF-contact time, and secondly that the Ser(PO3Ph2) residue underwent dephosphorylation at a slightly higher rate than the Thr(PO3Ph2) residue.
4.Efficient solid phase synthesis of mixed Thr(P)-, Ser(P)- and Tyr(P)-containing phosphopeptides by "global" "phosphite-triester" phosphorylation.
Perich JW1. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1992 Aug;40(2):134-40.
The synthesis of the mixed Thr(P)/Tyr(P)-containing peptide, Ala-Thr(P)-Tyr(P)-Ser-Ala, was accomplished by "phosphite-triester" phosphorylation of the resin-bound Thr/Tyr-containing peptide using di-t-butyl N,N-diethylphosphoramidite as the phosphitylation reagent. The pentapeptide-resin was assembled by Fmoc/solid-phase peptide synthesis with the use of PyBOP as coupling reagent and the hydroxy-amino acids incorporated as side-chain free Fmoc-Tyr-OH and Fmoc-Thr-OH. "Global" bis-phosphorylation of the peptide-resin was accomplished by treatment with di-t-butyl N,N-diethylphosphoramidite/1H-tetrazole followed by m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid oxidation of the intermediate di-t-butylphosphite triester. Simultaneous peptide-resin cleavage and peptide deprotection was effected by treatment of the peptide-resin with 5% anisole/TFA and gave the Thr(P)/Tyr(P)-containing phosphopeptide in high yield and purity. In addition, the tyrosyl residue was found to be phosphitylated in preference to the threonyl residue since the phosphitylation of the pentapeptide-resin using only 1.