1. Protease Ti from Escherichia coli requires ATP hydrolysis for protein breakdown but not for hydrolysis of small peptides
K M Woo, W J Chung, D B Ha, A L Goldberg, C H Chung J Biol Chem. 1989 Feb 5;264(4):2088-91.
Protease Ti, a new ATP-dependent protease in Escherichia coli, degrades proteins and ATP in a linked process, but these two hydrolytic functions are catalyzed by distinct components of the enzyme. To clarify the enzyme's specificity and the role of ATP, a variety of fluorogenic peptides were tested as possible substrates for protease Ti or its two components. Protease Ti rapidly hydrolyzed N-succinyl(Suc)-Leu-Tyr-amidomethylcoumarin (AMC) (Km = 1.3 mM) which is not degraded by protease La, the other ATP-dependent protease in E. coli. Protease Ti also hydrolyzed, but slowly, Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-AMC and Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC. However, it showed little or no activity against basic or other hydrophobic peptides, including ones degraded rapidly by protease La. Component P, which contains the serine-active site, by itself rapidly degrades the same peptides as the intact enzyme. Addition of component A, which contains the ATP-hydrolyzing site and is necessary for protein degradation, had little or no effect on peptide hydrolysis. N-Ethylmaleimide, which inactivates the ATPase, did not inhibit peptide hydrolysis. In addition, this peptide did not stimulate the ATPase activity of component A (unlike protein substrates). Thus, although the serine-active site on component P is unable to degrade proteins, it is fully functional against small peptides in the absence of ATP. At high concentrations, Suc-Leu-Tyr-AMC caused a complete inhibition of casein breakdown, and diisopropylfluorophosphate blocked similarly the hydrolysis of both protein and peptide substrates. Thus, both substrates seem to be hydrolyzed at the same active site on component P, and ATP hydrolysis by component A either unmasks or enlarges this proteolytic site such that large proteins can gain access to it.
2. Na+, K+-specific inhibition of protein and peptide hydrolyses by proteasomes from human hepatoma tissues
J H Seol, S C Park, D B Ha, C H Chung, K Tanaka, A Ichihara FEBS Lett. 1989 Apr 24;247(2):197-200. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(89)81333-x.
Proteasomes were purified from human hepatoma tissues, and their sensitivities to Na+ and K+ were examined. At concentrations of 10 mM or more, these cations were found to inhibit completely polylysine-activated casein degradation by the purified proteasomes. They also strongly inhibited the hydrolyses of peptides, although to a lesser extent. On the other hand, they reversed the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of polylysine on the hydrolyses of Suc-Leu-Tyr-AMC and Cbz-Ala-Arg-Arg-MNA, respectively. These results suggest that Na+ and/or K+ may be involved in the regulation of intracellular protein breakdown by controlling the multicatalytic activity of proteasomes.