Tat-Beclin-1, scrambled
Need Assistance?
  • US & Canada:
  • UK: +

Tat-Beclin-1, scrambled

* Please kindly note that our products are not to be used for therapeutic purposes and cannot be sold to patients.

Beclin-1 peptide is the HIV-1 Nef binding portion of full-length human Beclin-1 protein (amino acids 267-299). Beclin-1 protein is an autophagy inducing agent that triggers cell adaptation, survival, or death. When combined with the cell-permeable peptide, it can successfully enter cells and induce autophagy. Tat-Beclin-1, scrambled will not induce autophagy and can be used as a negative control.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
Lyophilized Solid
≥95% by HPLC
Store at -20°C
1. Histone deacetylase inhibition blunts ischemia/reperfusion injury by inducing cardiomyocyte autophagy
Min Xie, et al. Circulation. 2014 Mar 11;129(10):1139-51. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002416. Epub 2014 Jan 6.
Background: Reperfusion accounts for a substantial fraction of the myocardial injury occurring with ischemic heart disease. Yet, no standard therapies are available targeting reperfusion injury. Here, we tested the hypothesis that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for cancer treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration, will blunt reperfusion injury. Methods and results: Twenty-one rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) SAHA pretreatment (1 day before and at surgery), and (3) SAHA treatment at the time of reperfusion only. Each arm was subjected to ischemia/reperfusion surgery (30 minutes coronary ligation, 24 hours reperfusion). In addition, cultured neonatal and adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion to probe mechanism. SAHA reduced infarct size and partially rescued systolic function when administered either before surgery (pretreatment) or solely at the time of reperfusion. SAHA plasma concentrations were similar to those achieved in patients with cancer. In the infarct border zone, SAHA increased autophagic flux, assayed in both rabbit myocardium and in mice harboring an RFP-GFP-LC3 transgene. In cultured myocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, SAHA pretreatment reduced cell death by 40%. This reduction in cell death correlated with increased autophagic activity in SAHA-treated cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATG7 and ATG5, essential autophagy proteins, abolished SAHA's cardioprotective effects. Conclusions: The US Food and Drug Administration-approved anticancer histone deacetylase inhibitor, SAHA, reduces myocardial infarct size in a large animal model, even when delivered in the clinically relevant context of reperfusion. The cardioprotective effects of SAHA during ischemia/reperfusion occur, at least in part, through the induction of autophagic flux.
2. HDAC inhibition induces autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury
Jing Yang, et al. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 May;130:36-48. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.03.008. Epub 2019 Mar 14.
Aims: The FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat) has been shown to induce cardiomyocyte autophagy and blunt ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury when administered at the time of reperfusion. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective activity of SAHA are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage are major contributors to myocardial apoptosis during I/R injury. We hypothesize that SAHA protects the myocardium by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during I/R injury. Methods: Mouse and cultured cardiomyocytes (neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes) I/R models were used to investigate the effects of SAHA on mitochondria. ATG7 knockout mice, ATG7 knockdown by siRNA and PGC-1α knockdown by adenovirus in cardiomyocytes were used to test the dependency of autophagy and PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis respectively. Results: Intact and total mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial mass were significantly increased in cardiomyocytes by SAHA pretreatment before simulated I/R. In vivo, I/R induced >50% loss of mtDNA content in the border zones of mouse hearts, but SAHA pretreatment and reperfusion treatment alone reverted mtDNA content and mitochondrial mass to control levels. Moreover, pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with SAHA resulted in a 4-fold decrease in I/R-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a 25%-40% reduction in cytosolic ROS levels. However, loss-of-function of ATG7 in cardiomyocytes or mouse myocardium abolished the protective effects of SAHA on ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, mtDNA levels, and mitochondrial mass. Lastly, PGC-1α gene expression was induced by SAHA in NRVMs and mouse heart subjected to I/R, and loss of PGC-1α abrogated SAHA's mitochondrial protective effects in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: SAHA prevents I/R induced-mitochondrial dysfunction and loss, and reduces myocardial ROS production when given before or after the ischemia. The protective effects of SAHA on mitochondria are dependent on autophagy and PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis.
3. Downregulation of LAPTM4B Contributes to the Impairment of the Autophagic Flux via Unopposed Activation of mTORC1 Signaling During Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Shanshan Gu, Jiliang Tan, Qiang Li, Shenyan Liu, Jian Ma, Yanjun Zheng, Jinlong Liu, Wei Bi, Ping Sha, Xuxia Li, Meng Wei, Nan Cao, Huang-Tian Yang Circ Res. 2020 Sep 11;127(7):e148-e165. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316388. Epub 2020 Jul 22.
Rationale: Impaired autophagic flux contributes to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyocyte death, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Objective: To determine the role of LAPTM4B (lysosomal-associated transmembrane protein 4B) in the regulation of autophagic flux and myocardial I/R injury. Methods and results: LAPTM4B was expressed in murine hearts but downregulated in hearts with I/R (30 minutes/2 hours) injury and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation (6 hours/2 hours) injury. During myocardial reperfusion, LAPTM4B-knockout (LAPTM4B-/-) mice had a significantly increased infarct size and lactate dehydrogenase release, whereas adenovirus-mediated LAPTM4B-overexpression was cardioprotective. Concomitantly, LAPTM4B-/- mice showed higher accumulation of the autophagy markers LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3), but not P62, in the I/R heart, whereas they did not alter chloroquine-induced further increases of LC3-II and P62 in both sham and I/R hearts. Conversely, LAPTM4B-overexpression had opposite effects. The hypoxia/reoxygenation-reduced viability of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, ratio of autolysosomes/autophagosomes, and function of lysosomes were further decreased by LAPTM4B-knockdown but reversed by LAPTM4B-overexpression. Moreover, the LAPTM4B-overexpression-mediated benefits were abolished by knockdown of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (an autophagosome-lysosome fusion protein) in vivo and by the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 in vivo. In contrast, rapamycin (Rapa) successfully restored the impaired autophagic flux in LAPTM4B-/- mice and the subsequent myocardial I/R injury. Mechanistically, LAPTM4B regulated the activity of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) via interacting with mTOR through its EC3 (extracelluar) domain. Thus, mTORC1 was overactivated in LAPTM4B-/- mice, leading to the repression of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of lysosomal and autophagic genes, during myocardial I/R. The mTORC1 inhibition or TFEB-overexpression rescued the LAPTM4B-/--induced impairment in autophagic flux and I/R injury, whereas TFEB-knockdown abolished the LAPTM4B-overexpression-mediated recovery of autophagic flux and cardioprotection. Conclusions: The downregulation of LAPTM4B contributes to myocardial I/R-induced impairment of autophagic flux via modulation of the mTORC1/TFEB pathway. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.
Online Inquiry
Verification code
Inquiry Basket