1. Fatty acid ethyl ester from Manilkara zapota seed oil: a completely renewable biofuel for sustainable development
Sathish Kumar Rajamanickam, Sureshkumar Kasinathan Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Nov;28(43):61790-61800. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-15078-9. Epub 2021 Jun 29.
This article reports the deliverables of the experimental study on the production of a completely renewable biofuel from Manilkara zapota fruit and seed oil. It was attempted to synthesis ethyl ester from Manilkara zapota seed oil using bioethanol synthesized from decayed Manilkara zapota fruit. Bioethanol was produced through fermentation of decayed Manilkara zapota fruit, waste skin, and pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then distilled at 72°C. The bioethanol yield was noted as 10.45% (v/w). The 95.09% pure bioethanol and 4.9% water molecules were present in the distilled sample. Mechanically extracted raw Manilkara zapota seed oil was used for ethyl ester conversion. The molar ratio of bioethanol to oil, the quantity of KOH, and process temperature were investigated for the maximum yield of Manilkara zapota ethyl ester. A 9:1 molar ratio of bioethanol to oil, 1.5% (w/w) KOH, and 70°C process temperature were identified as enhanced ethanolysis process parameters. The maximum yield of ethyl ester was identified as 93.1%. Physicochemical characteristics of Manilkara zapota oil, bioethanol, and ethyl ester were measured as per the corresponding ASTM standards. It was found that both Manilkara Zapota ethyl ester and bioethanol synthesized from decayed Manilkara zapota fruit could be promising substitutes for fossil diesel and gasoline.
2. Omega-3 and cardiovascular prevention - Is this still a choice?
Massimiliano Ruscica, Cesare R Sirtori, Stefano Carugo, Philip C Calder, Alberto Corsini Pharmacol Res. 2022 Aug;182:106342. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106342. Epub 2022 Jul 4.
There is currently growing attention being paid to the role of elevated triglycerides (TGs) as important mediators of residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. This role is supported by genetic studies and by the persistent residual risk of ASCVD, even after intensive statin therapy. Although TG lowering drugs have shown conflicting results when tested in cardiovascular outcome trials, data from the REDUCE-IT study with the ethyl ester of ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have revived hope in this area of research. The aim of the present review is to critically discuss the most recent large trials with ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) trying to elucidate mechanistic and trial-related differences, as in the case of REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH studies. The ω-3 FAs may lower cardiovascular risk through a number of pleiotropic mechanisms, e.g., by lowering blood pressure, by mediating antithrombotic effects, by providing precursors for the synthesis of specialized proresolving mediators that can inhibit inflammation or by modulating the lipid rafts enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. In conclusion, in a field fraught with uncertainties, the ω-3 FAs and especially high dose icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) are at present a most valuable therapeutic option to reduce the ASCVD risk.
3. Optimization of ethyl ester production assisted by ultrasonic irradiation
K Noipin, S Kumar Ultrason Sonochem. 2015 Jan;22:548-58. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.07.019. Epub 2014 Aug 1.
This study presents the optimization of the continuous flow potassium hydroxide-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl ester from palm oil with ultrasonic assistance. The process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology. The independent variables considered were ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ultrasonic amplitude; and the response was ethyl ester yield. The results show that ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic amplitude have positive effect on ethyl ester yield, whereas reaction temperature has negative influence on ethyl ester yield. Second-order models were developed to predict the responses analyzed as a function of these three variables, and the developed models predicts the results in the experimental ranges studied adequately. This study shows that ultrasonic irradiation improved the ethyl ester production process to achieve ethyl ester yields above 92%.