1. Syntheses Based on 3,4α-Epoxy-1,5,7α,6β(H)-guai-10(14),11(13)-dien-6,12-olide
Sergazy Adekenov Molecules. 2022 Mar 13;27(6):1862. doi: 10.3390/molecules27061862.
The sesquiterpene γ-lactone estafiatin 1, the molecule of which has a structure of 3,4α-epoxy-1,5,7α,6β(H)-guai-10(14),11(13)-dien-6,12-olide, is characteristic of plants of the genera Achillea L. and Artemisia L. of the Asteraceae family. This article presents the results of chemical modification for three reaction centers of the estafiatin molecule 1: epoxy cycle, exomethylene group conjugated with γ-lactone carbonyl, and exomethylene group in position C10=C14; and at the same time 33 new derivatives were synthesized, the structures of which were established based on physicochemical constants, spectral data (IR-, PMR-, 13C-NMR), and X-ray diffraction analysis. The stereo- and regiospecificity, as well as the chemoselectivity of the reaction based on estafiatin molecule 1, are discussed. The reactivity of the substrate is significantly influenced by the stereochemistry of its molecule, the nature of the reagent, and the reaction medium. Based on the results of in silico screening, derivatives of estafiatin with high binding energies for both DNA-topoisomerase I and DNA-topoisomerase II were identified. The values of the inhibitory dose of IC50 for estafiatin 1 and its derivatives were determined on cell lines of eight types of tumors. in vivo experiments of the samples made it possible to establish that estafiatin 1 and its derivatives have pronounced antitumor activity against Pliss lymphosarcoma, Walker's carcinosarcoma, sarcoma 45, sarcoma-180, alveolar liver cancer PC-1, leukemia P-388 and L-1210, and sarcoma-45 resistant to 5-fluorouracil.
2. Sesquiterpene lactone dimers from the fruit of Carpesium abrotanoides L
Yu-Fang Wang, Yan Fu, Yan-Nan Ji, Ning-Ning Shi, Francoise Sauriol, Xin-Hua Lu, Yu-Cheng Gu, Qing-Wen Shi, Chang-Hong Huo Phytochemistry. 2022 Nov;203:113389. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113389. Epub 2022 Aug 23.
Seven undescribed sesquiterpene lactone dimers (SLDs) (carpeabrodilactones A-G), one known SLD, and six known sesquiterpenes were isolated from the fruit of Carpesium abrotanoides L. Carpeabrodilactone A was a dimeric carabrane featuring a rare C-13-C-13' linkage. Carpeabrodilactones B and C are the first two SLDs to be described possessing a carabranolide unit and a guaianolide unit connected by an O-ether linkage. The structures of the SLDs were assigned based on HRESIMS, NMR analysis, 13C NMR calculation, ECD calculation, and modified Mosher's method. Four SLDs showed potent cytotoxicity against K562 and/or A549 cells, with IC50 values below 10 μM, but none inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatases at 40 μM, including PTP1B, SHP1, CD45, and TCPTP.
3. Natural product syntheses via carbonylative cyclizations
Kaiqing Ma, Brandon S Martin, Xianglin Yin, Mingji Dai Nat Prod Rep. 2019 Jan 1;36(1):174-219. doi: 10.1039/c8np00033f. Epub 2018 Jun 20.
Covering: 2000-2018In this review, we highlight recent examples of natural product total syntheses employing transition metal-mediated/catalyzed carbonylative cyclization strategies to build key ring systems. It mainly covers carbonylative cyclizations for the construction of O-heterocycles, N-heterocycles and carbocycles including cyclic ketones and phenols. The reaction types include carbonylation of epoxide to β-lactones, carbonylative (macro)lactonization/lactamization, the Semmelhack reaction, tandem hydroformylation-cyclization, the Pauson-Khand reaction, carbonylative C-H activation cyclization, the Stille/Suzuki carbonylation, [n + m + 1] carbonylative cycloaddition, the Dötz annulation, and others.