1. A haploproficient interaction of the transaldolase paralogue NQM1 with the transcription factor VHR1 affects stationary phase survival and oxidative stress resistance
Steve Michel, Markus A Keller, Mirjam M C Wamelink, Markus Ralser BMC Genet. 2015 Feb 11;16:13. doi: 10.1186/s12863-015-0171-6.
Background: Studying the survival of yeast in stationary phase, known as chronological lifespan, led to the identification of molecular ageing factors conserved from yeast to higher organisms. To identify functional interactions among yeast chronological ageing genes, we conducted a haploproficiency screen on the basis of previously identified long-living mutants. For this, we created a library of heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae double deletion strains and aged them in a competitive manner. Results: Stationary phase survival was prolonged in a double heterozygous mutant of the metabolic enzyme non-quiescent mutant 1 (NQM1), a paralogue to the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transaldolase (TAL1), and the transcription factor vitamin H response transcription factor 1 (VHR1). We find that cells deleted for the two genes possess increased clonogenicity at late stages of stationary phase survival, but find no indication that the mutations delay initial mortality upon reaching stationary phase, canonically defined as an extension of chronological lifespan. We show that both genes influence the concentration of metabolites of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, central metabolic players in the ageing process, and affect osmolality of growth media in stationary phase cultures. Moreover, NQM1 is glucose repressed and induced in a VHR1 dependent manner upon caloric restriction, on non-fermentable carbon sources, as well as under osmotic and oxidative stress. Finally, deletion of NQM1 is shown to confer resistance to oxidizing substances. Conclusions: The transaldolase paralogue NQM1 and the transcription factor VHR1 interact haploproficiently and affect yeast stationary phase survival. The glucose repressed NQM1 gene is induced under various stress conditions, affects stress resistance and this process is dependent on VHR1. While NQM1 appears not to function in the pentose phosphate pathway, the interplay of NQM1 with VHR1 influences the yeast metabolic homeostasis and stress tolerance during stationary phase, processes associated with yeast ageing.
2. Fungal biotin homeostasis is essential for immune evasion after macrophage phagocytosis and virulence
Marcel Sprenger, Teresa S Hartung, Stefanie Allert, Stephanie Wisgott, Maria J Niemiec, Katja Graf, Ilse D Jacobsen, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube Cell Microbiol. 2020 Jul;22(7):e13197. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13197. Epub 2020 Mar 7.
Biotin is an important cofactor for multiple enzymes in central metabolic processes. While many bacteria and most fungi are able to synthesise biotin de novo, Candida spp. are auxotrophic for this vitamin and thus require efficient uptake systems to facilitate biotin acquisition during infection. Here we show that Candida glabrata and Candida albicans use a largely conserved system for biotin uptake and regulation, consisting of the high-affinity biotin transporter Vht1 and the transcription factor Vhr1. Both species induce expression of biotin-metabolic genes upon in vitro biotin depletion and following phagocytosis by macrophages, indicating low biotin levels in the Candida-containing phagosome. In line with this, we observed reduced intracellular proliferation of both Candida cells pre-starved of biotin and deletion mutants lacking VHR1 or VHT1 genes. VHT1 was essential for the full virulence of C. albicans during systemic mouse infections, and the lack of VHT1 led to reduced fungal burden in C. glabrata-infected brains and C. albicans-infected brains and kidneys. Together, our data suggest a critical role of Vht1-mediated biotin acquisition for C. glabrata and C. albicans during intracellular growth in macrophages and systemic infections.
3. A yeast model of FUS/TLS-dependent cytotoxicity
Shulin Ju, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 Apr;9(4):e1001052. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001052. Epub 2011 Apr 26.
FUS/TLS is a nucleic acid binding protein that, when mutated, can cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Although FUS/TLS is normally located predominantly in the nucleus, the pathogenic mutant forms of FUS/TLS traffic to, and form inclusions in, the cytoplasm of affected spinal motor neurons or glia. Here we report a yeast model of human FUS/TLS expression that recapitulates multiple salient features of the pathology of the disease-causing mutant proteins, including nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation, inclusion formation, and cytotoxicity. Protein domain analysis indicates that the carboxyl-terminus of FUS/TLS, where most of the ALS-associated mutations are clustered, is required but not sufficient for the toxicity of the protein. A genome-wide genetic screen using a yeast over-expression library identified five yeast DNA/RNA binding proteins, encoded by the yeast genes ECM32, NAM8, SBP1, SKO1, and VHR1, that rescue the toxicity of human FUS/TLS without changing its expression level, cytoplasmic translocation, or inclusion formation. Furthermore, hUPF1, a human homologue of ECM32, also rescues the toxicity of FUS/TLS in this model, validating the yeast model and implicating a possible insufficiency in RNA processing or the RNA quality control machinery in the mechanism of FUS/TLS mediated toxicity. Examination of the effect of FUS/TLS expression on the decay of selected mRNAs in yeast indicates that the nonsense-mediated decay pathway is probably not the major determinant of either toxicity or suppression.