1. Mailed Human Papillomavirus Self-Collection With Papanicolaou Test Referral for Infrequently Screened Women in the United States
Jennifer S Smith, et al. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jan;45(1):42-48. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000681.
Background: Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection using mailed, self-collected samples is a promising approach to increase screening in women who do not attend clinic screening at recommended intervals. Methods: To assess this intervention among high-risk women in the United States, 429 women without a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in 4 or more years (overdue by US guidelines) were recruited from the general population. Participants aged 30 to 65 years were mailed a kit to self-collect a cervicovaginal sample at home, return the sample by mail, and receive HPV results by telephone, with referral to follow-up cytological Pap testing at a local clinic. Cervicovaginal self-samples were collected with a Viba brush, stored in Scope mouthwash, and tested by Hybrid Capture 2. Data were collected in 2010 to 2011 and analyzed in 2017. Results: Two-thirds (64%) of participants returned a self-collected sample, of whom 15% tested HPV DNA positive. Human papillomavirus self-test-positive women reported higher rates of follow-up Pap tests (82%) than did those with self-test negative results (51%). No demographic differences were found in self-test return rate or HPV positivity. High acceptability was reported in participant surveys: most women (81%) had "mostly positive" overall thoughts about the self-test, and most reported being comfortable receiving the kit in the mail (99%), returning their self-collected sample by mail (82%), and receiving their test results by telephone (97%). Conclusions: Conducting HPV self-testing through population-based recruitment, mailed kit delivery and return by mail, and results delivery by telephone has the potential to reach a broad segment of US underscreened women.
2. Coupling Plant-Derived Cyclotides to Metal Surfaces: An Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Study
Pan Cao, Ying Yang, Fidelia Ijeoma Uche, Sarah Ruth Hart, Wen-Wu Li, Chengqing Yuan Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 9;19(3):793. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030793.
Modification of metal surfaces with antimicrobial peptides is a promising approach to reduce bacterial adhesion. Here, cyclic peptides or cycloids, possessing remarkable stability and antimicrobial activities, were extracted and purified from Viola philippica Cav., and identified using mass spectrometry. Cyclotides were subsequently utilized to modify stainless steel surfaces via polydopamine-mediated coupling. The resulting cyclotide-modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle analysis. The antibacterial capacity of these cyclotides against Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by Alamar blue assay. The antibiofilm capacity of the modified surfaces was assessed by crystal violet assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A composite of Kalata b1, Varv A, Viba 15 and Viba 17 (P1); Varv E (P2); and Viphi G (P3) were isolated and identified. FTIR analysis of the modified surfaces demonstrated that cyclotides bound to the surfaces and induced reduction of contact angles. Antimicrobial effects showed an order P3 > P1 and P2, with P3-treated surfaces demonstrating the strongest antibiofilm capacity. SEM confirmed reduced biofilm formation for P3-treated surfaces. This study provides novel evidence for cyclotides as a new class for development of antibacterial and antibiofilm agents.
3. Preference of specimen collection methods for human papillomavirus detection for cervical cancer screening: a cross-sectional study of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya
Griffins O Manguro, Linnet N Masese, Kishor Mandaliya, Susan M Graham, R Scott McClelland, Jennifer S Smith Reprod Health. 2018 Dec 12;15(1):206. doi: 10.1186/s12978-018-0651-z.
Objectives: Self-collection of genital specimens for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection may increase cervical cancer screening uptake. We hypothesized that women would prefer self-collection to clinician-collection of genital specimens. To test this hypothesis, and women's preference between two different self-collection approaches, a total of 199 women were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Mombasa, Kenya. Materials and methods: Participants provided self-collected specimens using the Evalyn cytobrush (Rovers) stored in a dry tube and the Viba cytobrush (Rovers) stored in wet Aptima media (Hologic). A clinician also collected cervical specimens for hrHPV testing and for cytology, and performed visual inspection using acetic acid. A post-examination questionnaire assessed preferences for the different methods of specimen collection. To test the difference in proportions for each collection method, we performed an exact binomial probability test, under the null hypothesis that women would prefer each specimen-collection method equally. Results: Most women preferred clinician-collection over self-collection (68% versus 32%, p < 0.01). For self-collection, dry-self collection with the Evalyn brush was preferred over the wet-selection with the Viba brush (53% versus 27%, p < 0.01). There was no association between preference for self-collection and preference for a particular self-collection cytobrush. Conclusion: Further research to understand and address obstacles to self-collection of genital specimens may be needed to improve the uptake of self-collection for cervical cancer screening, especially in settings with poor access to trained healthcare providers.