1. NSCLC Immunotherapy and Related Rare Toxicities: A Monocentric Real-Life Experience
Duilio Divisi, Andrea De Vico, Gino Zaccagna, Azzurra Irelli, Federica Aielli, Katia Cannita, Francesco Martella Cancer Med J. 2021 Dec;4(3):115-119. Epub 2021 Jul 10.
Background: In the last years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not supported by a driver mutation. Immunotherapy related adverse events (irAEs) have a unique toxicity profiles distinct from the toxicities of classical chemotherapy treatment relating to their mechanism of action. We analyzed some serious and uncommon life-threatening irAEs, needing a change in the therapeutic strategy. Method: Between October 2018 and October 2020, 63 NSCLC patients underwent immunotherapy. Thirty-eight patients underwent first-line Pembrolizumab, 200 mg every 21 days (Group A). Twenty patients were treated in second line with Pembrolizumab 200 mg every 21 days or Nivolumab 240 mg every 14 days or Atezolizumab 800 mg every 14 days (Group B). Five stage III patients treated after radio chemotherapy with Durvalumab 1500 mg every 14 days (Group C). Results: We experienced: a) 2 bowel perforations (3.2%), necessitating Hartmann's resection. Only one of the two patients restored immunotherapy; b) 1 chronic renal insufficiency (1.6%, creatinine up to 8 mg/dL) and 2 severe hypertransaminasemias (3.2%, up to 65 U/L), requiring the immediate and definitive interruption of ICIs; c) 2 pericardial effusions (3.2%), of which one needed subxiphoid pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade. Patient restored immunotherapy after resolution of the acute event. Conclusions: Immunotherapy include monoclonal antibodies reducing the suppression of effector T cells and improving the tumor-specific immune responses. Most common irAEs are evident in mild and reversible form, but sometimes life-threatening irEAs show up. Therefore, further clinical trials needed to increase knowledge of drugs and prevent unexpected irAEs.
2. A risk stratification scheme for synchronous oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer developed by a multicentre analysis
Lorenzo Spaggiari, et al. Lung Cancer. 2021 Apr;154:29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.02.001. Epub 2021 Feb 12.
Backgrounds: Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients represent a category without a standard therapeutic approach. However, in selected oligometastatic NSCLC, radical surgery seems to offer a good prognosis. This retrospective study aimed to analyse the long-term outcomes of synchronous oligometastatic patients treated with curative intent and identify the factors associated with better results and the proposal of a risk stratification system for classifying the synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC. Methods: The medical records of patients from 18 centres with pathologically diagnosed synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC, radical surgical treatment of the primary tumour with or without neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy and radical treatment of all metastatic sites. The Kaplan - Meier method estimated survivals. A stratified backward stepwise Cox regression model was assessed for multivariable survival analyses. Results: 281 patients were included. The most common site of metastasis was the brain, in 50.89 % patients. Median overall survival was 40 months (95 % CI: 29-53). Age ≤65 years (HR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05; p = 0.019), single metastasis (HR = 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.45-1.13; p = 0.15) and presence of contralateral lung metastases (HR = 0.30, 95 % CI: 0.15 - 0.62; p = 0.001) were associated with a good prognosis. The presence of pathological N2 metastases negatively affected survival (HR = 2.00, 95 % CI: 1.21-3.32; p = 0.0065). These prognostic factors were used to build a simple risk classification scheme. Conclusions: Treatment of selected synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC with curative purpose could be conducted safely and at acceptable 5-year survival levels, especially in younger patients with pN0 disease.
3. Epidemiology and management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a systematic review
Paolo Mendogni, et al. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2020 Mar 1;30(3):337-345. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivz290.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is one of the most common thoracic diseases affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite the high incidence of PSP and the availability of several international guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, a significant behavioural heterogeneity can be found among those management recommendations. A working group of the Italian Society of Thoracic Surgery summarized the best evidence available on PSP management with the methodological tool of a systematic review assessing the quality of previously published guidelines with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II. Concerning PSP physiopathology, the literature seems to be equally divided between those who support the hypothesis of a direct correlation between changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature and the incidence of PSP, so it is not currently possible to confirm or reject this theory with reasonable certainty. Regarding the choice between conservative treatment and chest drainage in the first episode, there is no evidence on whether one option is superior to the other. Video-assisted thoracic surgery represents the most common and preferred surgical approach. A primary surgical approach to patients with their first PSP seems to guarantee a lower recurrence rate than that of a primary approach consisting of a chest drainage positioning; conversely, the percentage of futile surgical interventions that would entail this aggressive attitude must be carefully evaluated. Surgical pleurodesis is recommended and frequently performed to limit recurrences; talc poudrage offers efficient pleurodesis, but a considerable number of surgeons are concerned about administering this inert material to young patients. Clinical trial registration number: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42018084247.