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Vico B
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Vico B is an antibacterial cyclic peptide isolated from Viola cotyledon, which may be involved in plant defense mechanisms.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
Cyclotide vico-B; Gly-Ser-Ile-Pro-Cys-Ala-Glu-Ser-Cys-Val-Tyr-Ile-Pro-Cys-Ile-Thr-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Cys-Ser-Cys-Lys-Asn-Lys-Val-Cys-Tyr-Tyr-Asn
1. Long-term evaluation of patients with hydatidosis treated with benzimidazole carbamates
C Franchi, B Di Vico, A Teggi Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;29(2):304-9. doi: 10.1086/520205.
Four hundred forty-eight patients with 929 Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts received 3- to 6-month continuous cycles of mebendazole or albendazole treatment and underwent prolonged follow-up by clinical visits and imaging studies (range, 1-14 years) to assess the long-term outcome of treatment. Degenerative changes and relapse were assessed by imaging techniques. At the end of therapy, 74.1% of the hydatid cysts showed degenerative changes. These were more frequent in albendazole-treated than in mebendazole-treated cysts (82.2% vs. 56.1%; P < .001). During long-term follow-up, 104 cysts (22%) had degenerative changes that progressed, whereas 163 cysts (approximately 25%) relapsed. The percentages of relapses in the two drug-treated groups were almost the same. Relapses occurred more frequently in type II cysts of the liver. Cysts recurred most often (78.5%; P < .001) within the first 2 years after treatment ended. Further chemotherapy cycles induced degenerative changes in >90% of relapsed cysts without inducing more frequent or more severe side effects than those observed during the initial cycles.
2. Mixed cryoglobulinemia secondary to visceral Leishmaniasis
M Casato, F G de Rosa, L P Pucillo, I Ilardi, B di Vico, L R Zorzin, M L Sorgi, P Fiaschetti, R Coviello, B Laganà, M Fiorilli Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Sep;42(9):2007-11. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199909)42:93.0.CO;2-X.
We describe a case of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia, with monoclonal IgMkappa rheumatoid factor, associated with visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Involvement of Leishmania antigen(s) in the formation of cryoprecipitable immune complexes was suggested by the fact that cryoglobulinemic vasculitis subsided after antiparasite therapy and that anti-Leishmania antibodies, as well as rheumatoid factor, were enriched in the cryoprecipitate. We observed 2 additional patients with visceral leishmaniasis and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. All 3 patients had seemingly contracted leishmaniasis in Italy, were hepatitis C virus negative, and were initially diagnosed as having autoimmune disorders. These findings indicate that Leishmania can be an etiologic agent of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. This parasitosis should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of vasculitides in endemic areas.
3. Workflows and Outcomes in Patients With Suspected Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke Triaged in Urban and Nonurban Areas
Alvaro Garcia-Tornel, et al. Stroke. 2022 Dec;53(12):3728-3740. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.122.040768. Epub 2022 Oct 19.
Background: We aim to compare the outcome of patients from urban areas, where the referral center is able to perform thrombectomy, with patients from nonurban areas enrolled in the RACECAT trial (Direct Transfer to an Endovascular Center Compared to Transfer to the Closest Stroke Center in Acute Stroke Patients With Suspected Large Vessel Occlusion). Methods: Patients with suspected large vessel occlusion stroke, as evaluated by a Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation score of ≥5, from urban catchment areas of thrombectomy-capable centers during RACECAT trial enrollment period were included in the Stroke Code Registry of Catalonia. Primary outcome was disability at 90 days, as assessed by the shift analysis on the modified Rankin Scale score, in patients with an ischemic stroke. Secondary outcomes included mortality at 90 days, rate of thrombolysis and thrombectomy, time from onset to thrombolysis, and thrombectomy initiation. Propensity score matching was used to assemble a cohort of patients with similar characteristics. Results: The analysis included 1369 patients from nonurban areas and 2502 patients from urban areas. We matched 920 patients with an ischemic stroke from urban areas and nonurban areas based on their propensity scores. Patients with ischemic stroke from nonurban areas had higher degrees of disability at 90 days (median [interquartle range] modified Rankin Scale score, 3 [2-5] versus 3 [1-5], common odds ratio, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.06-1.48]); the observed average effect was only significant in patients with large vessel stroke (common odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.08-1.65]). Mortality rate was similar between groups(odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.81-1.28]). Patients from nonurban areas had higher odds of receiving thrombolysis (odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.16-1.67]), lower odds of receiving thrombectomy(odds ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]), and longer time from stroke onset to thrombolysis (mean difference 38 minutes [95% CI, 25-52]) and thrombectomy(mean difference 66 minutes [95% CI, 37-95]). Conclusions: In Catalonia, Spain, patients with large vessel occlusion stroke triaged in nonurban areas had worse neurological outcomes than patients from urban areas, where the referral center was able to perform thrombectomy. Interventions aimed at improving organizational practices and the development of thrombectomy capabilities in centers located in remote areas should be pursued. Registration: URL: https://www. Clinicaltrials: gov; Unique identifier: NCT02795962.

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