1. In vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo therapeutic effect of Sesbania grandiflora in bacterial infected silkworms
Pimporn Anantaworasakul, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Siriporn Okonogi Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):1256-1262. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1297467.
Context: Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem worldwide. Searching for new potential agents is, therefore, essential. The bark of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. (Fabaceae) has been used in folk medicine against various diseases. Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of S. grandiflora bark and explore the therapeutic effect of the highest potent fraction. Materials and methods: Bacteria and healthy silkworms were exposed to three fractionated extracts (3.1-400 mg/mL) of S. grandiflora bark from hexane (HXF), chloroform (CFF), and ethyl acetate (EAF). The sets of bacteria were incubated at 37 °C while silkworms were kept at 27 °C for 24 h. To evaluate the therapeutic effect, silkworms infected with bacteria were exposed to the extracts (0.5-60 mg/mL) and incubated at 27 °C for 52 h. Qualitative analysis of the most potent extract was done using HPLC. Results: EAF showed the highest activity with MIC against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) of 1.6 and 0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa of 6.2 and 3.1 mg/mL, respectively. It is nontoxic to silkworms with LC50 >400 mg/mL and has high therapeutic effect on infected silkworms with EC50 of 1.9 mg/mL. EAF consists of at least five major compounds, one of them is gallic acid. The activity of EAF is higher than the sum of individual activities of separated compounds. Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest that EAF is a promising antibacterial extract, suitable for further investigation in rodents infected with drug resistant bacteria.
2. Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles against selected human pathogens
J Das, M Paul Das, P Velusamy Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Mar;104:265-70. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2012.11.075. Epub 2012 Dec 5.
Simple, effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora and their in vitro antibacterial activity against selected human pathogens has been demonstrated in the study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized AgNPs viz. UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, TEM, EDX and AFM. Surface Plasmon spectra for AgNPs are centered at 422 nm with dark brown color. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 10-25 nm. The presence of water soluble proteins in the leaf extract was identified by FTIR which were found to be responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs showed potent antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus.
3. Extracellular Polymeric Matrix Production and Relaxation under Fluid Shear and Mechanical Pressure in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms
Jiapeng Hou, Deepak H Veeregowda, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Dec 15;84(1):e01516-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01516-17. Print 2018 Jan 1.
The viscoelasticity of a biofilm's EPS (extracellular polymeric substance) matrix conveys protection against mechanical challenges, but adaptive responses of biofilm inhabitants to produce EPS are not well known. Here, we compare the responses of a biofilm of an EPS-producing (ATCC 12600) and a non-EPS producing (5298) Staphylococcus aureus strain to fluid shear and mechanical challenge. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed absence of calcofluor-white-stainable EPS in biofilms of S. aureus 5298. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy combined with tribometry indicated that polysaccharide production per bacterium in the initial adhering layer was higher during growth at high shear than at low shear and that this increased EPS production extended to entire biofilms, as indicated by tribometrically measured coefficients of friction (CoF). CoF of biofilms grown under high fluid shear were higher than those when grown under low shear, likely due to wash-off polysaccharides. Measurement of a biofilm's CoF implies application of mechanical pressure that yielded an immediate increase in the polysaccharide band area of S. aureus ATCC 12600 biofilms due to their compression. Compression decreased after relief of pressure to the level observed prior to mechanical pressure. For biofilms grown under high shear, this coincided with a higher percent whiteness in optical coherence tomography-images indicative of water outflow, returning back into the biofilm during stress relaxation. Biofilms grown under low shear, however, were stimulated during tribometry to produce EPS, also after relief of stress. Knowledge of factors that govern EPS production and water flow in biofilms will allow better control of biofilms under mechanical challenge and better understanding of the barrier properties of biofilms against antimicrobial penetration.IMPORTANCE Adaptive responses of biofilm inhabitants in nature to environmental challenges such as fluid shear and mechanical pressure often involve EPS production with the aim of protecting biofilm inhabitants. EPS can assist biofilm bacteria in remaining attached or can impede antimicrobial penetration. The TriboChemist is a recently introduced instrument, allowing the study of initially adhering bacteria to a germanium crystal using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, while simultaneously allowing measurement of the coefficient of friction of a biofilm, which serves as an indicator of the EPS content of a biofilm. EPS production can be stimulated by both fluid shear during growth and mechanical pressure, while increased EPS production can continue after pressure relaxation of the biofilm. Since EPS is pivotal in the protection of biofilm inhabitants against mechanical and chemical challenges, knowledge of the factors that make biofilm inhabitants decide to produce EPS, as provided in this study, is important for the development of biofilm control measures.