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Viphi F
* Please kindly note that our products are not to be used for therapeutic purposes and cannot be sold to patients.

Viphi F is a cytotoxic cyclic peptide isolated from Viola philippica, which shows cytotoxic activity to cancer cell lines MM96L, HeLa and BGC-823.

Functional Peptides
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2. Common, low-frequency, rare, and ultra-rare coding variants contribute to COVID-19 severity
Chiara Fallerini, et al. Hum Genet. 2022 Jan;141(1):147-173. doi: 10.1007/s00439-021-02397-7. Epub 2021 Dec 10.
The combined impact of common and rare exonic variants in COVID-19 host genetics is currently insufficiently understood. Here, common and rare variants from whole-exome sequencing data of about 4000 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were used to define an interpretable machine-learning model for predicting COVID-19 severity. First, variants were converted into separate sets of Boolean features, depending on the absence or the presence of variants in each gene. An ensemble of LASSO logistic regression models was used to identify the most informative Boolean features with respect to the genetic bases of severity. The Boolean features selected by these logistic models were combined into an Integrated PolyGenic Score that offers a synthetic and interpretable index for describing the contribution of host genetics in COVID-19 severity, as demonstrated through testing in several independent cohorts. Selected features belong to ultra-rare, rare, low-frequency, and common variants, including those in linkage disequilibrium with known GWAS loci. Noteworthily, around one quarter of the selected genes are sex-specific. Pathway analysis of the selected genes associated with COVID-19 severity reflected the multi-organ nature of the disease. The proposed model might provide useful information for developing diagnostics and therapeutics, while also being able to guide bedside disease management.
3. Rare variants in Toll-like receptor 7 results in functional impairment and downregulation of cytokine-mediated signaling in COVID-19 patients
Stefania Mantovani, Sergio Daga, et al. Genes Immun. 2022 Feb;23(1):51-56. doi: 10.1038/s41435-021-00157-1. Epub 2021 Dec 24.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial components in the initiation of innate immune responses to a variety of pathogens, triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I and II interferons, which are responsible for innate antiviral responses. Among the different TLRs, TLR7 recognizes several single-stranded RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. We and others identified rare loss-of-function variants in X-chromosomal TLR7 in young men with severe COVID-19 and with no prior history of major chronic diseases, that were associated with impaired TLR7 signaling as well as type I and II IFN responses. Here, we performed RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptome variations following imiquimod stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients carrying previously identified hypomorphic, hypofunctional, and loss-of-function TLR7 variants. Our investigation revealed a profound impairment of the TLR7 pathway in patients carrying loss-of-function variants. Of note, a failure in IFNγ upregulation following stimulation was also observed in cells harboring the hypofunctional and hypomorphic variants. We also identified new TLR7 variants in severely affected male patients for which a functional characterization of the TLR7 pathway was performed demonstrating a decrease in mRNA levels in the IFNα, IFNγ, RSAD2, ACOD1, IFIT2, and CXCL10 genes.

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