1. Peptides with 6-Aminohexanoic Acid: Synthesis and Evaluation as Plasmin Inhibitors
Maciej Purwin, Agnieszka Markowska, Irena Bruzgo, Tomasz Rusak, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Urszula Jaworowska, Krystyna Midura-Nowaczek Int J Pept Res Ther. 2017;23(2):235-245. doi: 10.1007/s10989-016-9555-3. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
Fifteen new peptide derivatives of ɛ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) containing the known fragment -Ala-Phe-Lys- with an affinity for plasmin were synthesised in the present study. The synthesis was carried out a solid phase. The following compounds were synthesised: H-Phe-Lys-EACA-X, H-d-Ala-Phe-Lys-EACA-X, H-Ala-Phe-Lys-EACA-X, H-d-Ala-Phe-EACA-X and H-Ala-Phe-EACA-X, where X = OH, NH2 and NH-(CH2)5-NH2. All peptides, except for those containing the sequence H-Ala-Phe-EACA-X, displayed higher inhibitory activity against plasmin than EACA. The most active and selective inhibitor of plasmin was the compound H-d-Ala-Phe-Lys-EACA-NH2 which inhibited the amidolytic activity of plasmin (IC50 = 0.02 mM), with the antifibrinolytic activity weaker than EACA. The resulting peptides did not affect the viability of fibroblast cells, colon cancer cell line DLD-1, breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.
2. Transport characteristics of peptides and peptidomimetics: I. N-methylated peptides as substrates for the oligopeptide transporter and P-glycoprotein in the intestinal mucosa
J Gao, M Sudoh, J Aubé, R T Borchardt J Pept Res. 2001 Apr;57(4):316-29. doi: 10.1046/j.1397-002x.2001.00000.x.
Peptides and peptidomimetics often exhibit poor oral bioavailability due to their metabolic instability and low permeation across the intestinal mucosa. N-Methylation has been used successfully in peptide-based drug design in an attempt to improve the metabolic stability of a peptide-based lead compound. However, the effect of N-methylation on the absorption of peptides through the intestinal mucosa is not well understood, particularly when transporters, i.e. the oligopeptide transporter (OPT) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), modulate the passive diffusion of these types of molecules. To examine this, terminally free and terminally modified (N-acetylated and C-amidated) analogs of H-Ala-Phe-Ala-OH with N-methyl groups on either the Ala-Phe or Phe-Ala peptide bond were synthesized. Transport studies using Caco-2 cell monolayers, an in vitro model of the intestinal mucosa, showed that N-methylation of the Ala-Phe peptide bond of H-Ala-Phe-Ala-OH stabilized the molecule to protease degradation, and the resulting analog exhibited significant substrate activity for OPT. However, N-methylation of the Phe-Ala peptide bond of H-Ala-Phe-Ala-OH did not stabilize the molecule to protease degradation, and the substrate activity of the resulting molecule for OPT could not be determined. Interestingly, N-methylation of the Phe-Ala peptide bond of the terminally modified tripeptide Ac-Ala-Phe-Ala-NH2 decreased the substrate activity of the molecule for the efflux transporter P-gp. In contrast, N-methylation of the Ala-Phe peptide bond of the terminally modified tripeptide Ac-Ala-Phe-Ala-NH2 increased the substrate activity of the molecule for P-gp.
3. Opioid activities of D-Arg2-substituted tetrapeptides
T Sato, S Sakurada, T Sakurada, S Furuta, K Chaki, K Kisara, Y Sasaki, K Suzuki J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Aug;242(2):654-9.
The antinociceptive effects and mechanisms of action of H-Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Gly-OH, H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Gly-OH and H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-sarcosine(Sar)-OH have been investigated. The ED50 values of these peptides were 510.0, 8.2 and 2.0 pmol, respectively, when administered i.c.v. in the mouse tail-pressure test (dermorphin = 5.7 pmol and morphine = 1.2 nmol). These activities were remarkably potent and relatively long lasting. Their IC50 values were 676.8, 23.1 and 6.6 nM, respectively (dermorphin = 3.75 and morphine = 214.3 nM) in the guinea pig isolated ileum assay, and 138.50, 5.25 and 1.10 nM, respectively (dermorphin = 3.80 and morphine = 28.00 nM) in the radioreceptor assay utilizing [3H]naloxone as the opioid receptor ligand. In the evaluation of their inhibitory effects to enkephalin-degrading enzymes, the IC50 values of H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Gly-OH, H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Sar-OH and H-Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Gly-OH were 5.4, 14.5 and more than 50.0 microM, respectively (bestatin = 0.1 microM) against aminopeptidase and 1.18, 1.40 and more than 50.0 microM, respectively (captopril = 0.38 and D-Phe-2S-, 3R-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoic acid = more than 100 microM) against the cleaving enzymes of enkephalin at its Gly3-Phe4 bond. The authors suggest that the marked antinociceptive potency of H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Gly-OH and H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Sar-OH is mainly due to high opioid receptor affinity. Their inhibitory effects on enkephalin-degrading enzymes and enzymatic stability also greatly contribute to their potent and long-lasting opioid activities.