1. L- and D-proline adsorption by chiral ordered mesoporous silica
Clara Casado, Joaquín Castán, Ismael Gracia, Miriam Yus, Alvaro Mayoral, Víctor Sebastián, Pilar López-Ram-de-Viu, Santiago Uriel, Joaquín Coronas Langmuir. 2012 Apr 24;28(16):6638-44. doi: 10.1021/la300864n. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
Chiral ordered mesoporous silica (COMS) was synthesized in the presence of amino acid proline by combining tetraethyl orthosilicate and quaternized aminosilane silica sources. The as-prepared materials were activated by calcination or microwave chemical extraction to remove the organic templates. The powder X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption characterization revealed in COMS the structural and textural features of MCM-41-type silica. The chirality of the material was disclosed by mixed and separate L- and D-proline adsorption on the COMS prepared with L-proline (L-Pro-COMS) and D-proline (d-Pro-COMS). It was found that the maximum L-proline and D-proline adsorption capacities on L-Pro-COMS were ca. 2.3 and 0.6 mmol/g, respectively, while the adsorption of D-proline was higher than that of l-proline on d-Pro-COMS. Finally, both activation routes yielded enantioselective silicas able to separate proline racemate.
2. L-Hydroxyproline and d-Proline Catabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti
Siyun Chen, Catharine E White, George C diCenzo, Ye Zhang, Peter J Stogios, Alexei Savchenko, Turlough M Finan J Bacteriol. 2016 Feb 1;198(7):1171-81. doi: 10.1128/JB.00961-15.
Sinorhizobium meliloti forms N2-fixing root nodules on alfalfa, and as a free-living bacterium, it can grow on a very broad range of substrates, including l-proline and several related compounds, such as proline betaine, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (trans-4-l-Hyp), and cis-4-hydroxy-d-proline (cis-4-d-Hyp). Fourteen hyp genes are induced upon growth of S. meliloti on trans-4-l-Hyp, and of those, hypMNPQ encodes an ABC-type trans-4-l-Hyp transporter and hypRE encodes an epimerase that converts trans-4-l-Hyp to cis-4-d-Hyp in the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we present evidence that the HypO, HypD, and HypH proteins catalyze the remaining steps in which cis-4-d-Hyp is converted to α-ketoglutarate. The HypO protein functions as a d-amino acid dehydrogenase, converting cis-4-d-Hyp to Δ(1)-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate, which is deaminated by HypD to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde and then converted to α-ketoglutarate by HypH. The crystal structure of HypD revealed it to be a member of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase subfamily of the (α/β)8 protein family and is consistent with the known enzymatic mechanism for other members of the group. It was also shown that S. meliloti can catabolize d-proline as both a carbon and a nitrogen source, that d-proline can complement l-proline auxotrophy, and that the catabolism of d-proline is dependent on the hyp cluster. Transport of d-proline involves the HypMNPQ transporter, following which d-proline is converted to Δ(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (P2C) largely via HypO. The P2C is converted to l-proline through the NADPH-dependent reduction of P2C by the previously uncharacterized HypS protein. Thus, overall, we have now completed detailed genetic and/or biochemical characterization of 9 of the 14 hyp genes. Importance: Hydroxyproline is abundant in proteins in animal and plant tissues and serves as a carbon and a nitrogen source for bacteria in diverse environments, including the rhizosphere, compost, and the mammalian gut. While the main biochemical features of bacterial hydroxyproline catabolism were elucidated in the 1960s, the genetic and molecular details have only recently been determined. Elucidating the genetics of hydroxyproline catabolism will aid in the annotation of these genes in other genomes and metagenomic libraries. This will facilitate an improved understanding of the importance of this pathway and may assist in determining the prevalence of hydroxyproline in a particular environment.
3. Microbial Proline Racemase-Proline Dehydrogenase Cascade for Efficient Production of D-proline and N-boc-5-hydroxy-L-proline from L-proline
Fanfan Zhang, Shiwen Xia, Hui Lin, Jiao Liu, Wenxin Huang Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2022 Sep;194(9):4135-4146. doi: 10.1007/s12010-022-03980-y. Epub 2022 May 30.
D-proline and N-boc-5-hydroxy-L-proline are key chiral intermediates in the production of eletriptan and saxagliptin, respectively. An efficient proline racemase-proline dehydrogenase cascade was developed for the enantioselective production of D-proline. It included the racemization of L-proline to DL-proline and the enantioselective dehydrogenation of L-proline in DL-proline. The racemization of L-proline to DL-proline used an engineered proline racemase (ProR). L-proline up to 1000 g/L could be racemized to DL-proline with 1 g/L of wet Escherichia coli cells expressing ProR within 48 h. The efficient dehydrogenation of L-proline in DL-proline was achieved using whole cells of proline dehydrogenase-producing Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes XW-40. Moreover, using a cell-recycling strategy, D-proline was obtained in 45.7% yield with an enantiomeric excess of 99.6%. N-boc-5-hydroxy-L-proline was also synthesized from L-glutamate semialdehyde, a dehydrogenated product of L-proline, in a 16.7% yield. The developed proline racemase-proline dehydrogenase cascade exhibits great potential and economic competitiveness for manufacturing D-proline and N-boc-5-hydroxy-L-proline from L-proline.