1.Advanced proteomic analyses yield a deep catalog of ubiquitylation targets in Arabidopsis.
Kim DY1, Scalf M, Smith LM, Vierstra RD. Plant Cell. 2013 May;25(5):1523-40. doi: 10.1105/tpc.112.108613. Epub 2013 May 10.
The posttranslational addition of ubiquitin (Ub) profoundly controls the half-life, interactions, and/or trafficking of numerous intracellular proteins. Using stringent two-step affinity methods to purify Ub-protein conjugates followed by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry, we identified almost 950 ubiquitylation substrates in whole Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The list includes key factors regulating a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cellular transport, signal transduction, transcription, RNA biology, translation, and proteolysis. The ubiquitylation state of more than half of the targets increased after treating seedlings with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-Leu-al), strongly suggesting that Ub addition commits many to degradation by the 26S proteasome. Ub-attachment sites were resolved for a number of targets, including six of the seven Lys residues on Ub itself with a Lys-48>Lys-63>Lys-11>>>Lys-33/Lys-29/Lys-6 preference.
2.Upregulated ROS production induced by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on XBP1 gene expression and cell apoptosis in Tca-8113 cells.
Chen HY1, Ren XY1, Wang WH1, Zhang YX1, Chen SF1, Zhang B2, Wang LX3. Biomed Pharmacother. 2014 Jul;68(6):709-13. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.07.011. Epub 2014 Jul 18.
Exposure of Tca-8113 cells to proteasome inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132) causing apoptosis is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes active during ER stress, which is related to cell survival and is required for tumor growth. The present study is to evaluate the effect of MG-132 on ROS production, XBP1 gene expression, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), ASK1 and c-jun protein expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line Tca-8113 cells. ROS production was measured by reactive oxygen species assay. X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA was analyzed by real-time-PCR, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun protein were investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry respectively. The result indicated that ROS production, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun were elevated in MG-132 treated cells. Giving ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) largely prevented the effects of MG-132.
3.A proteolytic cascade controls lysosome rupture and necrotic cell death mediated by lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants.
Brojatsch J1, Lima H1, Kar AK1, Jacobson LS1, Muehlbauer SM1, Chandran K1, Diaz-Griffero F1. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 3;9(6):e95032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095032. eCollection 2014.
Recent studies have linked necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins to the adaptive immune response mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants, alum and Leu-Leu-OMe (LLOMe). However, the mechanism by which lysosome-destabilizing agents trigger necrosis and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins is poorly understood. The proteasome is a cellular complex that has been shown to regulate both necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins. We found that the peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitors, MG115 and MG132, block lysosome rupture, degradation of inflammatory proteins and necrotic cell death mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing peptide LLOMe. However, non-aldehyde proteasome inhibitors failed to prevent LLOMe-induced cell death suggesting that aldehyde proteasome inhibitors triggered a pleotropic effect. We have previously shown that cathepsin C controls lysosome rupture, necrotic cell death and the adaptive immune response mediated by LLOMe.
4.N- and C-terminal degradation of ecdysteroid receptor isoforms, when transiently expressed in mammalian CHO cells, is regulated by the proteasome and cysteine and threonine proteases.
Schauer S1, Burster T, Spindler-Barth M. Insect Mol Biol. 2012 Jun;21(3):383-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2012.01144.x.
Transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors is the result of transactivation capability and the concentration of the receptor protein. The concentration of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) isoforms, constitutively expressed in mammalian CHO cells, is dependent on a number of factors. As shown previously, ligand binding stabilizes receptor protein concentration. In this paper, we investigate the degradation of EcR isoforms and provide evidence that N-terminal degradation is modulated by isoform-specific ubiquitination sites present in the A/B domains of EcR-A and -B1. This was demonstrated by the increase in EcR concentration by treatment with carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal (MG132), an inhibitor of ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and by deletion of ubiquitination sites. In addition, EcR is degraded by the peptidyl-dipeptidase cathepsin B (CatB) and the endopeptidase cathepsin S (CatS) at the C-terminus in an isoform-specific manner, despite identical C-termini.