1.Farnesylthiosalicylic acid sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to artemisinin derivatives.
Wu L;Pang Y;Qin G;Xi G;Wu S;Wang X;Chen T PLoS One. 2017 Feb 9;12(2):e0171840. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171840. eCollection 2017.
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate (ARS), two artemisinin derivatives, have efficacious anticancer activities against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. This study aims to study the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a Ras inhibitor, in HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines). FTS pretreatment significantly enhanced DHA/ARS-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, Bak/Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-8 and -9 activations, characteristics of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) potently prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS, and pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the loss of ΔΨm induced by DHA/ARS treatment or the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS in HCC cells. Furthermore, silencing Bak/Bax modestly but significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS. Interestingly, pretreatment with an antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS instead of the combination treatment of ARS and FTS, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a key role in the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS.
2.The effect of specific caspase inhibitors on TNF-alpha and butyrate-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.
Jones SA;Butler RN;Sanderson IR;Wilson JW Exp Cell Res. 2004 Jan 1;292(1):29-39.
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis may contribute to mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel disease. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, using specific caspase inhibitors could, therefore, be of benefit in the treatment of disease. In vitro, CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells are refractory to apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha alone; however, TNF-alpha can act synergistically with the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and colonic fermentation product, butyrate, to promote apoptosis. TNF-alpha/butyrate-induced apoptosis was characterised by nuclear condensation and fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Inhibitors of caspase-8 (z-IETD.fmk) and caspase-10 (z-AEVD.fmk) significantly reduced TNF-alpha/butyrate-induced apoptosis, based on nuclear morphology and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling (TUNEL), although caspase inhibition was associated with a significant increase in cells demonstrating atypical nuclear condensation. Inclusion of atypical cells in calculations of total cell death, still demonstrated that z-IETD.fmk and z-AEVD.fmk (in combination) significantly reduced cell death. Reduction in cell death was associated with maintenance of viable cell number.
3.Omeprazole induces apoptosis in normal human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Capodicasa E;Cornacchione P;Natalini B;Bartoli A;Coaccioli S;Marconi P;Scaringi L Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008 Jan-Mar;21(1):73-85.
We investigated in vitro apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) induced by omeprazole. This drug, both in the native (OM) and acidified (OM-HCl) form, is a potent inducer of PMN apoptosis. The effect is time- and dose-dependent. OM-HCl is more efficient than OM in inducing PMN apoptosis. In fact, after 24 h incubation in vitro at 1 x 10(-4) M OM-HCl induces apoptosis in 70% of the cell population compared to 37% induced by OM. Apoptosis induced by both forms of the drug is caspase dependent being significantly reduced by pretreating cells with the caspase 3 inhibitor (DEVDH-CHO). However, some differences in the apoptosis mechanisms between the two forms of the drug seem to exist because PMN treatment with the specific caspase 8 inhibitor (Z-IETD-FMK) only blocks OM-HCl mediated apoptosis. We observed cleavage of caspase 8 only in the cells incubated with OM-HCl while the executioner caspase 3 was activated with both forms of the drug. Furthermore, pretreatment with GM-CSF, a known activator of intracellular survival pathways in PMN, partially protected cells from OM-HCl induced apoptosis but did not contrast the apoptotic effect of OM. Cysteine cathepsin proteases also seem involved in the apoptotic mechanism of both drug forms since the specific inhibitor E64d gave a significant protection.