1. Immobilized Antibodies on Mercaptophenylboronic Acid Monolayers for Dual-Strategy Detection of 20S Proteasome
Melania Onea, Madalina M Barsan, Victor C Diculescu, Caroline G Sanz Sensors (Basel) . 2021 Apr 12;21(8):2702. doi: 10.3390/s21082702.
A dual strategy for the electrochemical detection for 20S proteasome (20S) is proposed, based on the oriented immobilization of a capture monoclonal antibody (Abβ) on a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) on gold electrodes, which led to the Au/4-MPBA/Abβ immunosensor. The methodology comprises the correlation of 20S concentration with (i) its proteolytic activity toward the Z-LLE-AMC substrate, using the Au/4-MPBA/Abβ/20S, and (ii) the enzymatic activity of an alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) from the AlkP-labeled secondary antibody (Abcore-AlkP), which involves the conversion of aminophenylphosphate to the electroactive aminophenol using Au/4-MPBA/Abβ/20S/Abcore-AlkP. The step-by-step construction of the immunosensor and the interactions at its surface were evaluated by surface plasmon resonance and gravimetric analysis with quartz crystal microbalance, showing a high affinity between both antibodies and 20S. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a pattern of parallel lines upon immobilization of Abβ on 4-MPBA and morphological changes to a well-organized granular structure upon binding of 20S. A voltametric and impedimetric characterization was performed after each step in the immunosensor construction. The two detection strategies were evaluated. It was shown that the immunosensor responds linearly with 20S concentration in the range between 5 and 100 µg mL-1, which corresponds to proteasome levels in serum in the case of diverse pathological situations, and LoD values of 1.4 and 0.2 µg mL-1were calculated for the detection strategies. The immunosensor was applied to the detection of 20S in serum samples with recovery values ranging from 101 to 103%.
2. Role of ginsenoside Rd in inhibiting 26S proteasome activity
Tsui-Ling Chang, Hsiou-Yu Ding, Yi-Wen Kao J Agric Food Chem . 2008 Dec 24;56(24):12011-5. doi: 10.1021/jf801427e.
Drugs targeting 26S proteasome as antitumor agents are considered to be important for cancer therapy. Although the active components are yet to be identified, for more than 1000 years, the low-toxicity Panax ginseng has been used in traditional herbal medicine for either treating or preventing cancer. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1 are distinct components that can be isolated from P. ginseng C.A. Meyer. In this study 26S proteasome was purified from pig red blood cells, and the activity of the seven isolated ginsenosides was analyzed by proteolysis assay. It was found that ginsenoside Rd inhibited 52.9% the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome with an IC(50) value of 107.5 microM when Suc-LLVY-AMC was used as a substrate. Ginsenoside Rd displayed a mixed type inhibition of 26S proteasome when analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots of the inhibition kinetics. Unlike ginsenoside Rd, the other ginsenosides showed low inhibitory effect of the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome. Seven ginsenosides did not inhibit the trypsin-like and caspase-like activities of 26S when Ac-RLR-AMC or Z-LLE-AMC was used as substrate. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rd is a potential drug for cancer prevention due to its specific 26S proteasome inhibitory effect and known low toxicity. Furthermore, both 3-O-Glc(2)-Glc and 20-O-beta-Glc positions of the ginsenoside may play a role in the inhibitory property of the chymotrypsin-like activity in 26S proteasome.
3. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibition of proteasomal activity: a potential mechanism of growth arrest
Carla Marienfeld, Yoko Yamagiwa, Tushar Patel, James Hawker, Laura Tadlock Am J Physiol Cell Physiol . 2003 Aug;285(2):C277-85. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00550.2002.
Although the proteasome plays a critical role in the controlled degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control, the direct modulation of proteasomal function by growth regulatory signaling has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed the effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a potent inhibitor of cell growth, on proteasomal function. TGF-beta selectively decreased hydrolysis of the proteasomal substrate Cbz-Leu-Leu-Leu-7-amido-4-methyl-coumarin (z-LLL-AMC) in a concentration-dependent manner but did not inhibit hydrolysis of other substrates Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC (suc-LLVY-AMC) or Cbz-Leu-Leu-Glu-AMC (z-LLE-AMC). An increase in intracellular oxidative injury occurred during incubation with TGF-beta. Furthermore, in vitro hydrolysis of z-LLL-AMC, but not suc-LLVY-AMC, was decreased by hydrogen peroxide. TGF-beta did not increase cellular expression of heat shock protein (HSP)90, a potent inhibitor of z-LLL-AMC hydrolysis in vitro. The physiological relevance of TGF-beta inhibition of proteasomal activity was studied by assessing the role of z-LLL-AMC hydrolysis on cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression and cell growth. TGF-beta increased expression of p27KIP1 but did not alter expression of p21WAF1 or p16INK4A. The peptide aldehyde Cbz-Leu-Leu-leucinal (LLL-CHO or MG132) potently inhibited z-LLL-AMC hydrolysis in cell extracts as well as increasing p27KIP1 and decreasing cell proliferation. Thus growth inhibition by TGF-beta decreases a specific proteasomal activity via an HSP90-independent mechanism that may involve oxidative inactivation or modulation of proteasomal subunit composition and results in altered cellular expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins such as p27KIP1.