Stable isotope-labeled amino acids are those where atoms commonly found in amino acids are replaced by their stable isotopes. Different from common amino acids, people can observe the direction of isotope atoms in stable-isotope labeled amino acids in living organisms by means of detectors, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and other analytical instruments. Stable isotope-labeled amino acids provide a safe, effective and convenient tracer tool in scientific research, which can be used to reveal the transport and transformation process of amino acids in animals and plants, diagnose diseases and explore the synthesis mechanism of compounds. In recent years, many stable-isotope labeled amino acids have been synthesized by chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and isotope exchange methods. These stable-isotope labeled amino acids are widely used in medicine, biology, pharmacy and chemistry.
The stable-isotope labeled amino acids have almost no toxicity (a 60 kg human body can tolerate 30 g of deuterium, and there is no abnormal phenomenon when the 13C atom in mice reaches 90%), and are more suitable for the in vivo kinetic studies of pregnancy, newborn. In addition, stable-isotope labeled amino acids do not have half-lives like radioisotope labeled amino acids and are therefore not subject to study time constraints.
1. Application in medicine
Stable-isotope labeled amino acids can be used as tracers to trace their physical and chemical processes in vivo and in cells, and to understand the metabolism of organisms. Protein synthesis using stable isotope-labeled amino acids can be used for disease diagnosis. For example, 13C-labeled amino acids can be used for the diagnosis of tumor cells, the identification of tumor recurrence, the identification of pathological changes after disease treatment, and the examination of human metabolic function.
2. Application in biology
Using stable-isotope labeled amino acids as starting materials, the target natural products were synthesized by using the structural relationship between the amino acids labeled with stable-isotope and natural products. Then, the biosynthesis routes of natural products in plants, animals and microorganisms can be determined by detecting the abundance of stable-isotope markers of natural products.
3. Application in pharmacy
Stable-isotope labeled amino acid is one of the important tools for developing innovative drugs. Using stable isotope-labeled amino acids as a tool, the transfer and transformation process of new drugs in the human body can be determined, and the efficacy, mechanism of action and toxic and side effects of new drugs can be determined. Stable isotope-labeled amino acids provide an important basis for the research of new drugs. The use of stable isotope-labeled amino acids as a tool for new drug research not only has high sensitivity and less detection amount, but also can be studied at lower than normal physiological doses without affecting normal physiological activities.
4. Application in chemistry
Stable isotope-labeled amino acids can be used as tracers to explore the related chemical reaction mechanism, and can also be used as raw materials for the synthesis of other labeled products.