The main design idea of solid-phase peptide synthesis resin: the hydroxyl group of the amino acid of the peptide chain to be synthesized is connected with an insoluble polymer resin in a covalent bond structure, and then combined with the solid-phase carrier. The amino acid is used as the amino component to remove the amino protective group, and react with the excess activated hydroxyl component to lengthen the peptide chain. Repeat the operation of condensation, washing, deprotection, neutralization, washing and the next round of condensation to reach the length of peptide chain to be synthesized. Finally, the peptide chain is cleaved from the resin and purified to obtain the desired peptide.
There are three main types of polymer carriers for peptide synthesis: polystyrene styrene cross-linking resin, polyamide resin and polyethylene glycol resin.
Polystyrene styrene cross-linking resin is one of the earliest and most commonly used solid-phase carrier in polypeptide synthesis, including Wang resin, 2-chorotrityl chloridie resin, aminomethyl (AM) resin and 4-methylbenzene hydroamine (MBHA) resin. AM resin is one of the most widely used functional carriers in solid synthesis. AM resin is used as a scavenger resin in solution synthesis to remove acids, alkylating agents and electrophilic reagents. MBHA resin is used for the chemical synthesis of peptide amides by BOC. Because this carrier is more acid and sensitive than benzhydrylamine (BHA) resin, the release of the product can be achieved by HF or TFMSA under less intense conditions. MBHA resin is also a common functional carrier to realize C-terminal amidation.
Polyamide resins are beads or amorphous acrylamide carriers obtained by co-polymerization of dimethylacrylamide, diacryl ethylenediamine and asymmetric diamide derived monomers. Polyamide resin swells to 10 times its volume in polar solvents, higher in water, and much lower in nonpolar solvents. In this sense, their characteristics are opposite to those of traditional PS resins. Therefore, the resin can be used to synthesize amphiphilic peptides that failed with PS resin.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) resin is composed of insoluble polystyrene styrene (PS) matrix, and polyethylene glycol chain is attached to it. PEG-PS resin generally has good physical and chemical properties, such as swelling, physical stability and anti-wear and mechanical pressure resistance in the flow system. Therefore, it is especially suitable for the synthesis of continuous flow polypeptides, with good yield and purity.