Peptides for Cardiovascular Research
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Peptides for Cardiovascular Research

Introduction to Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is the collective term for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, which are ischemic or hemorrhagic diseases of the heart and peripheral vessels caused by hyperlipidemia, blood viscosity, atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc. Cardiovascular diseases cover a wide range, including heart failure, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, etc., and many patients have multiple chronic diseases at the same time.

Heart and blood vessels - BOC Sciences

Causes of Cardiovascular Disease

There are four common causes of cardiovascular disease: (1) vascular factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertensive arterioles, arteritis; (2) hemodynamic factors such as hypertension; (3) high fat Blood rheology abnormalities such as blood sugar and diabetes; (4) blood component factors such as leukemia, anemia, and thrombocytosis.

Smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, increasing age, ethnicity, genetics, etc. are all risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

Current Status of Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is a common disease that seriously threatens human life and health, and has the characteristics of high morbidity, high disability and high mortality. According to the data released by the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people who die of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the world is as high as 17.9 million every year, which is equivalent to 1 in every 3 deaths. Data from the World Heart Federation (WHF) shows that the number of people with cardiovascular disease worldwide has exceeded 500 million. Although modern medical treatment and examination methods are relatively complete, cardiovascular disease is still one of the major disease burdens that cause death and disability in the world today.

Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

Since most cardiovascular diseases are closely related to hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, obesity and lifestyle, they are considered preventable and manageable. But cardiovascular disease prevention efforts are often forgotten. Cardiovascular disease treatment is also a major problem. Due to the characteristics of cardiovascular disease itself, it is difficult to design clinical trials of cardiovascular disease drugs, and existing cell and gene therapies still have limitations. As the main responsibility of human life activities, peptides have certain help in the remission and prevention of many diseases. Studies have shown that peptides have certain effects on cardiovascular diseases.

Treatment of cardiovascular diseases - BOC Sciences

  • Angiotensin & Related Peptides

Angiotensin (ANG) is a group of oligopeptide hormones formed by angiotensinogen (AGT) under the action of renin and a series of enzymes.

Angiotensin is widely present in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and plays an important role in vasoconstriction, blood pressure elevation, and promotion of adrenal hormone release.

Angiotensin I is a 10-peptide produced by renin acting on angiotensinogen in plasma. Angiotensin I, as a precursor of angiotensin II, also has certain biological effects. Angiotensin I can affect intrarenal blood flow distribution, inhibit renin secretion, and stimulate adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine.

Angiotensin II is an 8-peptide produced by the hydrolysis of angiotensin I under the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II can constrict the arterioles of the whole body to increase blood pressure, and it can also constrict veins, resulting in an increase in blood return to the heart. In addition, it can also promote the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone acts on the renal tubules to retain sodium, water, and potassium, resulting in increased blood volume. Angiotensin II also enhances sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, induces thirst and drinking behavior, and stimulates the secretion of vasopressin and adrenocorticotropic hormone.

Angiotensin (1-7), as an antagonist of angiotensin II, has various effects such as vasodilation, natriuresis, inhibition of smooth muscle hyperplasia, and is of great significance to cardiovascular research.

Angiotensinogen (1-14), human104180-23-6DRVYIHPFHLVIHNInquiry
Angiotensin II4474-91-3DRVYIHPFInquiry
Angiotensin I (human, mouse, rat)484-42-4DRVYIHPFHLInquiry
Angiotensin II (3-8), human12676-15-2VYIHPFInquiry
Angiotensin I/II 1-558442-64-1Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-IleInquiry
Angiotensin I/II 1-647896-63-9DRVYIHInquiry
Angiotensin I/II (1-7)51833-78-4DRVYIHPInquiry
Angiotensinogen (1-14), Porcine64315-16-8DRVYIHPFHLLVYSInquiry
Angiotensinogen(tetradecapeptide renin substrate), 5-L-isoleucine- (9CI)20845-02-7DRVYIHPFHLLVYSInquiry
[Sar1,Ile8]-Angiotensin II37827-06-8SAR-RVYIHPIInquiry
Angiotensin III (human, mouse)13602-53-4RVYIHPFInquiry
Angiotensin I human acetate salt hydrate70937-97-2DRVYIHPFHLInquiry
Angiotensin II (1-4), human52580-29-7Asp-Arg-Val-TyrInquiry
Angiotensin II (5-8), human34233-50-6Ile-His-Pro-PheInquiry
[Sar1,Ile8]-Angiotensin II TFASAR-RVYIHPI.TFAInquiry
[Sar1, Ala8]-Angiotensin II38027-95-1GRVYIHPAInquiry
Angiotensin I/II (3-7)122483-84-5H-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-OHInquiry
[Asn1,Val5]-Angiotensin II53-73-6NRVYVHPFInquiry
Angiotensin Acetate58-49-1DRVYVHPFInquiry
A 779159432-28-7DRVYIHAInquiry
  • Adrenomedullin (AM) & Related Peptides

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a cardiovascular active peptide consisting of 52 amino acids. AM has a variety of physiological effects such as dilating blood vessels, inhibiting vascular remodeling, lowering blood pressure, improving cardiac systolic function, natriuretic diuresis, and regulating renal function. As a monitoring index, AM is of great significance to the assessment of cardiovascular system diseases, and provides new ideas for disease prevention and treatment.

Adrenomedullin (11-50), rat163648-32-6STGCRFGTCTMQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGMAP RNKISPQGY-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: Cys4-Cys9)Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (AM) (13-52), human154765-05-6SFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: Cys16-Cys21)Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (AM) (22-52), human159899-65-7TVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-NH2Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (1-52), human148498-78-6YRQSMNNFQGLRSFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: Cys16-Cys21)Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (1-50), ratYRQSMNQGSRSTGCRFGTCTMQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDGMAPRNKISPQGY-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: Cys14-Cys19)Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (16-31), human318480-38-5CRFGTCTVQKLAHQIY-NH2Inquiry
Adrenomedullin (AM) (1-52), human TFAYRQSMNNFQGLRSFGCRFGTCTVQKLAHQIYQFTDKDKDNVAPRSKISPQGY-NH2.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys16-Cys21)Inquiry
  • Apelin & Related Peptides

Apelin is an endogenous ligand of angiotensin II receptor-associated protein (APJ). Apelin is an important active peptide whose molecular structure is similar to that of angiotensin II. Apelin can modulate cardiovascular function in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner. Apelin can significantly increase myocardial contraction while dilating blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. It has a unique dual beneficial effect on the improvement of heart pump function and the regulation of blood pressure. Apelin is therefore a powerful tool in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension.

Apelin-36 (rat, mouse)230299-95-3LVKPRXSRXGPGAWQGGRRKFRRQRPRLSHKGPMPFInquiry
Apelin-17 (Human, Bovine)217082-57-0KFRRQRPRLSHKGPMPFInquiry
ELA-14 (human)1886973-05-2XRRCMPLHSRVPFP (Modifications: X-1 = Pyr)Inquiry
MM 541313027-43-8CRPRLCKHCRPRLC (Disulfide bridge: Cys1 and Cys6, Cys9 and Cys14)Inquiry
  • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) & Related Peptides

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a multifunctional active peptide consisting of 21-35 amino acid residues. According to the different functions in the body, ANP is also known as atrial natriuretic hormone, natriuretic hormone, diuretic hormone, and vasodilator. ANP, brain natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide together form the natriuretic peptide system. The role of ANP is natriuresis, diuresis, relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, regulation of cell proliferation, etc. It plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure, water and sodium balance and in the pathophysiological process of cardiovascular disease.

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) (1-28), rat88898-17-3SLRRSSCFGGRIDRIGAQSGLGCNSFRY (Disulfide bridge: Cys7-Cys23)Inquiry
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) (1-28), rat TFASLRRSSCFGGRIDRIGAQSGLGCNSFRY.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys7-Cys23)Inquiry
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) (1-28), human, porcine Acetate1366000-58-9SLRRSSCFGGRMDRIGAQSGLGCNSFRY.CH3CO2H (Disulfide bridge: Cys7-Cys23)Inquiry
Prepro-Atrial Natriuretic Factor (26-55) (human)112160-82-4NPMYNAVSNADLMDFKNLLDHLEEKMPLEDInquiry
  • Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) & Related Peptides

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family. BNP is a peptide hormone mainly secreted by ventricular myocytes. Factors such as myocardial ischemia, necrosis, injury, ventricular wall tension and excessive pressure stimulate the synthesis and release of BNP. BNP has the functions of natriuretic diuresis, dilation of blood vessels, inhibition of renin secretion, and inhibition of aldosterone secretion. Studies have confirmed that BNP can be used for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of heart failure. BNP is also involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of various cardiovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and hypertension.

Brain natriuretic peptide (1-32) (human)124584-08-3SPKMVQGSGCFGRKMDRISSSSGLGCKVLRRH (Disulfide bridge: Cys10-Cys26)Inquiry
Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (1-32), rat133448-20-1NSKMAHSSSCFGQKIDRIGAVSRLGCDGLRLF (Disulfide bridge: Cys10-Cys26)Inquiry
Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) (1-32), rat TFANSKMAHSSSCFGQKIDRIGAVSRLGCDGLRLF.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys10-Cys26)Inquiry
BNP-45 rat123337-89-3SQDSAFRIQERLRNSKMAHSSSCFGQKIDRIGAVSRLGCDGLRLF (Disulfide bridge: Cys23-Cys39)Inquiry
  • C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) & Related Peptides

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is the third member of the natriuretic peptide family, mainly produced by endothelial cells. As a cardiovascular active peptide, CNP can dilate blood vessels, inhibit the proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix formation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, reduce arteriosclerosis and plaque formation, and inhibit vascular remodeling in a paracrine/autocrine manner. Therefore, it plays an important protective role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, myocardial hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis.

Proinsulin C-Peptide (55-89), human11097-48-6RREAEDLQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQPLALEGSLQKRInquiry
Proinsulin C-peptide human33017-11-7EAEDLQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQPLALEGSLQInquiry
  • Bradykinin & Related Peptides

Bradykinin (BK) is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide consisting of 9 amino acids. Bradykinin has the effect of relaxing blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, and regulating water and electrolyte balance.

Galanin (1-13)-Bradykinin (2-9) amide142846-71-7GWTLNSAGYLLGPPPGFSPFR-NH2Inquiry
Bradykinin 1-323815-91-0Arg-Pro-ProInquiry
Bradykinin 1-523815-89-6Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-PheInquiry
Bradykinin 1-623815-88-5RPPGFSInquiry
Bradykinin 2-916875-11-9PPGFSPFRInquiry
[Des-Arg9]-Bradykinin acetate23827-91-0RPPGFSPF.CH3CO2HInquiry
Bradykinin-GN_4 antimicrobial peptide precursorTMKKSLLVLFFLGTISLSLCInquiry
Bradykinin-TR1 bradykinin-related peptide precursorTMKKPLLVLFFLGAISVSLCEQInquiry
Bradykinin Acetate6846-03-3RPPGFSPFRInquiry
Bradykinin Fragment 1-723815-87-4RPPGFSPInquiry
Icatibant Acetate138614-30-9RRPXGXSXXRInquiry
MEN 11270235082-52-7RRPXGXXXXR(Modifications: Arg-1 = D-Arg, X-1 = Hyp, X-2 = Thi, X-3 = Dab, X-4 = D-Tic, X-5 = Oic, cyclized 7γ-10α)Inquiry
R 715185052-09-9KRPPGFSXIInquiry
R 892229030-05-1KRPPGXSXIInquiry
  • Endothelin & Related Peptides

Endothelin (ET) is a peptide consisting of 21 amino acids. Endothelin is the strongest known vasoconstrictor active peptide in the body, which may be related to the occurrence and development of many cardiovascular diseases. Endothelin has the effect of constricting vascular smooth muscle, and also has positive inotropic effect, which can stimulate growth and lead to vascular and cardiac remodeling. Endothelin also stimulates the release of renin and aldosterone.

Endothelin 1 (swine, human)117399-94-7CSCSSLMDKECVYFCHLDIIWInquiry
Endothelin-3, human, mouse, rabbit, rat117399-93-6CTCFTYKDKECVYYCHLDIIW (Disulfide bridge: Cys1-Cys15, Cys3-Cys11)Inquiry
[Ala1,3,11,15]-Endothelin 1121204-87-3ASASSLMDKEAVYFAHLDIIWInquiry
Endothelin-2, human123562-20-9CSCSSWLDKECVYFCHLDIIW (Disulfide bridge: Cys1-Cys15, Cys3-Cys11)Inquiry
Endothelin-3, human, mouse, rabbit, rat TFACTCFTYKDKECVYYCHLDIIW.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys1-Cys15, Cys3-Cys11)Inquiry
Ac-Endothelin-1 (16-21), humanAc-His-Leu-Asp-xiIle-xiIle-Ala(indol-2-yl)-OHInquiry
  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a biologically active peptide consisting of 37 amino acids. CGRP has strong vasodilation, lowering blood pressure, increasing myocardial contractility, and inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle. CGRP regulates the cardiovascular system and has an important impact on the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases.

Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) (83-119), rat TFASCNTATCVTHRLAGLLSRSGGVVKDNFVPTNVGSEAF-NH2.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys2-Cys7)Inquiry
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 1 (16-25)VLLQAGSLHAInquiry
Calcitonin gene-related peptide83652-28-2ACDTATCVTHRLAGLLSRSGGVVKNNFVPTNVGSKAFInquiry
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polyeptide (PACAP)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with various biological activities. As an endogenous vasodilator substance, PACAP has a powerful effect on the cardiovascular system.

PACAP (1-27), human, ovine, rat127317-03-7HSDGIFTDSYSRYRKQMAVKKYLAAVL-NH2Inquiry
PACAP-38 (31-38) (human, chicken, mouse, ovine, porcine, rat)138764-85-9YKQRVKNK-NH2Inquiry
PACAP-38 (16-38) (human, chicken, mouse, ovine, porcine, rat)144025-82-1QMAVKKYLAAVLGKRYKQRVKNK-NH2Inquiry
PACAP (6-38), human, ovine, rat143748-18-9FTDSYSRYRKQMAVKKYLAAVLGKRYKQRVKNK-NH2Inquiry
  • Fibrinogen & Related Peptides

Fibrinogen (FIB) is a plasma glycoprotein with coagulation function synthesized and secreted by the liver. In addition to participating in coagulation, fibrinogen is also an independent predictor of various cardiovascular diseases, and its correlation with ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and other diseases has been studied by many researches confirmed. In addition, fibrinogen as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease has been confirmed by a large number of histopathological, clinical trials and epidemiological studies.

Fibrinogen Binding Inhibitor Peptide89105-94-2HHLGGAKQAGDVInquiry
Fibrinogen-Binding Peptide137235-80-4Glu-His-Ile-Pro-AlaInquiry
Fibrinopeptide A, human25422-31-5ADSGEGDFLAEGGGVRInquiry
GPRP acetate157009-81-9Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-OH.CH3CO2HInquiry
  • Fibronectin & Related Peptides

Fibronectin is a high molecular weight non-collagenous glycoprotein and one of the main components of the extracellular matrix. Fibronectin plays a key role in regulating cell adhesion, migration, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and is involved in wound healing, embryonic development, immune regulation and other processes. It has a variety of biological activities and cell regeneration and repair. biological functions. Fibronectin can promote the adhesion of platelets to damaged blood vessels and accelerate the blood clotting process.

Fibronectin Adhesion-promoting Peptide125720-21-0WQPPRARIInquiry
Fibronectin CS1 Peptide136466-51-8EILDVPSTInquiry
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 3B (292-300)VVMSWAPPVInquiry
FN1 (2050-2063)MIFEKHGFRRTTPPInquiry
  • Vasopressin/Oxytocin & Related Peptides

The main hormones produced by the posterior pituitary are oxytocin and vasopressin. The amino acid sequences of vasopressin and oxytocin differ by only two amino acids.

Vasopressin is a vasoactive peptide composed of 9 amino acids, also known as arginine vasopressin. Vasopressin is associated with the development of various cardiovascular and renal diseases. The main role of vasopressin is to regulate osmotic pressure, regulate cardiovascular activity, maintain homeostasis, and also participate in central heat regulation, central pain regulation, etc.

Oxytocin is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized by the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is very similar in structure to vasopressin, so oxytocin can also constrict the surrounding capillaries and increase blood pressure. Oxytocin also modulates factors directly related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, such as inflammation, weight gain, and insulin resistance.

Argipressin Acetate129979-57-3CYFQNCPRGInquiry
Felypressin Acetate56-59-7CFFQNCPKGInquiry
Lysipressin Acetate83968-49-4C(1)YFQNC(1)PKGInquiry
Ornipressin Acetate3397-23-7C(1)YFQNC(1)PXGInquiry
[Arg8]-Vasotocin TFACYIQNCPRG-NH2.TFA (Disulfide bridge: Cys1-Cys6)Inquiry
[Arg8]-Vasotocin acetate salt74927-14-3C(1)YIQNC(1)PRGInquiry
Desmopressin acetate trihydrate62357-86-2CYFQNCPRGInquiry
  • Urotensin & Related Peptides

Uropressin is a neurocyclic peptide isolated from the caudal pituitary gland of fish. Uropressin, a vasoconstrictor active peptide, has many biological effects after binding to receptors, such as constricting blood vessels and promoting cell proliferation.

Urotensin II (114-124), human251293-28-4ETPDCFWKYCVInquiry
Urotensin II (114-124), human TFAETPDCFWKYCVInquiry
Urotensin II, mouse9047-55-6AGXADC(1)FWKYC(1)Inquiry
UFP 803879497-82-2DXFWXYCVInquiry
Urantide669089-53-6DX(1)FWXYC(1)V(Modifications: X-2 = Pen, X-5 = Orn, Trp-4 = D-Trp)Inquiry
  • Kisspeptin & Related Peptides

Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide, encoded by the KiSS-1 gene, which can be hydrolyzed to produce short amidated peptides of different lengths such as Kisspeptin-54, Kisspeptin-14, Kisspeptin-13 and Kisspeptin-10. Kisspeptin has biological effects such as inhibiting tumor metastasis, affecting endocrine, regulating reproductive function, and affecting cardiovascular diseases.

Kisspeptin 2341145998-81-7Ac-ANWNGFGWRF-NH2 (Modifications: Ala-1 = D-Ala & N-terminal Ac, Trp-8 = D-Trp, Phe-10 = C-terminal amide)Inquiry
Kisspeptin-10 TrifluoroacetateYNWNSFGLRF-NH2.TFAInquiry
TAK-448 acetate1470374-22-1Ac-Y-Hyp-NTFGLRW-NH2.CH3CO2HInquiry
  • Eptifibatide & Impurities

Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide with antiplatelet activity. Eptifibatide inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking fibrinogen and other viscosity factors. Eptifibatide can be used to treat coronary heart disease.

Eptifibatide Impurity 1deamino-Cys(1)-hArg-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Cys(1)-OHInquiry
Eptifibatide Impurity 2Trp-Pro-Cys(1)-NH2, Cys(1)-deamino-hArg-Gly-Asp(Disulfide bond)Inquiry
Eptifibatide Impurity 3deamino-Cys(1)-hArg-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Cys(2)-NH2,deamino-Cys(2)-hArg-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Cys(1)-NH2 (Disulfide bond)Inquiry
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