Peptides for Gastrointestinal Research
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Peptides for Gastrointestinal Research

Introduction to Gastrointestinal Diseases

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the human body. The gastrointestinal tract refers to the digestive tract from the stomach pylorus to the anus, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine and other parts. The intestine is the longest part of the digestive tract and the most important part of its function. The gastrointestinal tract is not a simple tube composed of muscles and mucous membranes, but a whole that functions under the innervation of a complex nervous system. The gastrointestinal tract is the main organ of the digestive system, and it takes in enough water and essential nutrients for the body.

The variety and scope of gastrointestinal diseases is quite wide. Gastrointestinal diseases mainly refer to general inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases (acute and chronic gastritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, acute and chronic appendicitis, etc.), peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, bacillary dysentery, intestinal obstruction, short bowel syndrome, colorectal polyps, anal fissure, anal fistula, etc.

Gastrointestinal system

Current Status of Gastrointestinal Diseases

According to the World Health Organization, gastrointestinal diseases have posed a huge threat to human health. Every year, more than 10 million people worldwide die from gastrointestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal diseases are characterized by longer course of disease, more difficult treatment, and recurrent attacks. Nowadays, the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases is high. The older the age, the higher the incidence, especially in middle-aged and elderly patients over 50 years old. The incidence is higher in men than in women. If gastrointestinal diseases are not treated in time, they will recur for a long time and can easily be transformed into cancer.

Symptoms of Gastrointestinal Diseases

Symptoms may vary depending on the location of the gastrointestinal disease and the nature of the disease. Symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases mainly include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation. Gastrointestinal diseases can also be complicated by bleeding, perforation, obstruction, and cancer.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases

The cause of gastrointestinal diseases is the imbalance of protective factors and attack factors in the gastric mucosa, resulting in that the protective factors in the gastrointestinal mucosa are weaker than the attack factors. The occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases in life is usually related to the patient's psychological factors, diet, intestinal infection, changes in visceral gastrointestinal dynamics, genetic factors and environmental factors.

Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases

There are dozens of endocrine cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and the hormones they secrete are collectively called gastrointestinal hormones. Gastrointestinal hormones are all peptides. The number of amino acid residues that make up a peptide chain varies from a few to dozens. These peptides are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal mucosa and intrinsic nervous system, and have important regulatory effects on gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility, secretion of mucosal glands, blood supply, local inflammatory cells, immunocompetent cells and cytokines.

Treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

  • Motilin

Motilin is a 22-amino acid peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the upper part of the small intestine, and its main biological role is to participate in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility during interdigestion and postprandial. In recent years, studies have found that motilin deficiency is related to the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.

Motilin, canine85490-53-5FVPIFTHSELQKIREKERNKGQInquiry
Motilin (human, porcine)52906-92-0FVPIFTYGELQRMQEKERNKGQInquiry
  • Gastrin

The main functions of gastrin are to stimulate gastric acid secretion, promote gastrointestinal motility, and participate in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. At the same time, gastrin can also stimulate the secretion of pancreas, bile, and intestinal juice, and further decompose the food in the small intestine, which is conducive to the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Gastrin I (human)10047-33-3XGPWLEEEEEAYGWMDFInquiry
[Leu15]-Gastrin I (human)39024-57-2XGPWLEEEEEAYGWLDFInquiry
Gastrin I (1-14), human100940-57-6Glp-GPWLEEEEEAYGWInquiry
CCK-4 Acetate35144-91-3Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2Inquiry
Mini Gastrin I, human54405-27-5LEEEEEAYGWMDF-NH2Inquiry
Gastrin I rat81123-06-0XRPPMEEEEEAYGWMDF (Modifications: X-1 = Pyr)Inquiry
  • Bombesin

Bombesin is a biologically active peptide containing 14 amino acid residues. Bombesin can stimulate the release of several other gastrointestinal hormones, regulate gastrointestinal motility, stimulate the growth of normal mucosal tissue in the digestive tract, and improve the survival rate of animals with lethal enterocolitis.

bombesin nonapeptide55750-00-0NQWAVGHLMInquiry
  • Tachykinin

The tachykinin family are all single-chain polypeptides with a common amino acid sequence at the carboxy terminus. Tachykinins can cause strong contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, promote gastric emptying and intestinal content transport. Tachykinins that have been discovered so far include substance P, neuropeptide A, neuropeptide B, neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma.

Neurokinin A86933-74-6HKTDSFVGLMInquiry
Neurokinin A (4-10)97559-35-8DSFVGLM-NH2Inquiry
Neurokinin A (4-10) TFADSFVGLM-NH2.TFAInquiry
Neurokinin B86933-75-7DMHDFFVGLM-NH2Inquiry
Neurokinin B TFA101536-55-4DMHDFFVGLM-NH2.TFAInquiry
Substance P (1-7)68060-49-1RPKPQQFInquiry
  • Somatostatin

Somatostatin is a cyclic polypeptide containing 14 amino acid residues. Somatostatin plays an important role in regulating a variety of endocrine and endocrine processes. The main function of somatostatin is to inhibit gastric acid secretion and to reduce endocrine and exocrine secretion of the pancreas.

Octreotide is a synthetic 8-peptide somatostatin analog with a physiological effect similar to that of somatostatin, with a half-life of 1-2 h. Octreotide can inhibit the secretion of gastric and pancreatic juice, and is widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, acute pancreatitis, VIP tumor, gastrinoma and other diseases.

Octreotide83150-76-9d-FCF-d-WKTCT (Disulfide bridge: Cys2-Cys7)Inquiry
Octreotide Acetate79517-01-4FC(1)FWKTC(1)TInquiry
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) & Related Peptides

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) consists of 28 amino acids and is mainly released by enteric neurons. VIP has a dual role in the living body, both as a gastrointestinal hormone and as a neuropeptide. As a neuropeptide, the main role of VIP is to expand cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, regulate blood flow to the brain, reduce pulmonary artery pressure and lower blood pressure. As a gastrointestinal hormone, the main role of VIP in the digestive system is to inhibit the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, relax intestinal smooth muscle, and relax the lower esophageal sphincter, intestinal smooth muscle, and internal anal sphincter. Therefore, the change of VIP level is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases and is an important indicator for the research of gastrointestinal diseases.

Prepro VIP (111-122), human123025-94-5VSSNISEDPVPVInquiry
VIP (6-28) (human, rat, porcine, bovine)69698-54-0FXDNYXRLRKQMAVKKYLNSXLNInquiry
[D-p-Cl-Phe6,Leu17]-VIP102805-45-8HSDAVXXDNYXRLRKQLAVKKYLNSXLN (Modifications: X-6 = Phe{4-Cl}, X-7 = xiThr, X-11 = xiThr, X-26 = xiIle)Inquiry
  • Neurotensin

Neurotensin is a single-chain peptide containing 13 amino acid residues, synthesized and secreted by the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, and plays an important coordination role in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Neurotensin can protect the airway from gastric mucosal injury caused by cold stimulation, and can inhibit gastric acid secretion. Neurotensin and other neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of gut motility.

Neurotensin (8-13)60482-95-3RRPYILInquiry
  • Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by type I secretory cells in the lining of the small intestinal mucosa, and its physiological role is not only to stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice and bile, but also to regulate gastrointestinal motility. The main functions of CCK are to reduce food intake, inhibit gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion, stimulate gallbladder contraction and secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes.

CCK Octapeptide (non-sulfated)25679-24-7DYMGWMDFInquiry
CCK-4 Acetate35144-91-3Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2Inquiry
  • Secretin

Secretin is a peptide hormone composed of 27 amino acid residues. Secretin is secreted by almost all enteroendocrine cells, but mainly by S cells located in the duodenal mucosa. The main function of secretin is to inhibit gastric motility and gastric acid secretion, and to participate in the balance/osmoregulation of fluids in the body.

Secretin Acetate10813-74-8HSDGTFTSELSRLRDSARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
Secretin, porcine17034-34-3HSDGTFTSELSRLRDSARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
Secretin (rat)121028-49-7HSDGTFTSELSRLQDSARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
Secretin (28-54), human108153-74-8HSDGTFTSELSRLREGARLQRLLQGLV-NH2Inquiry
Secretin, canine110786-77-1HSDGTFTSELSRLRESARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
Secretin (5-27) (Porcine)19665-15-7TFTSELSRLRDSARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
Secretin (Porcine)17034-35-4HSDGTFTSELSRLRDSARLQRLLQGLVInquiry
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide

Pancreatic polypeptide is a peptide hormone composed of 36 amino acids, which is involved in metabolism in the body. Pancreatic polypeptide has a wide range of effects on the gastrointestinal tract, mainly inhibiting gastric acid secretion and protecting gastric mucosa.

Pancreatic Polypeptide, bovine179986-89-1APLEPEYPGDNATPEQMAQYAAELRRYINMLTRPRY-NH2Inquiry
Pancreatic Polypeptide, human75976-10-2APLEPVYPGDNATPEQMAQYAADLRRYINMLTRPRY-NH2Inquiry
Pancreatic Polypeptide, rat90419-12-8APLEPMYPGDYATHEQRAQYETQLRRYINTLTRPRY-NH2Inquiry
  • Peptide YY

Peptide YY (PYY) is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone, mainly secreted by endocrine cells of colon and ileum mucosa. The main functions of peptide YY are to reduce food intake, reduce pancreatic exocrine secretion, inhibit gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion.

  • Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y is a peptide hormone composed of 36 amino acids, rich in tyrosine in its structure, and belongs to the pancreatic polypeptide family. After neuropeptide Y is released, it mainly acts through neuropeptide Y receptors, affecting feeding behavior, hormone secretion, and gastrointestinal function.

Neuropeptide Y (human, rat)90880-35-6YPSKPDNPGEDAPAEDMARYYSALRHYINLITRQRYInquiry
Neuropeptide Y (13-36), amide, human122341-40-6PAEDMARYYSALRHYINLITRQRY-NH2Inquiry
Neuropeptide Y 22-36119019-65-7SALRHYINLITRQRY-NH2Inquiry
Neuropeptide Y (free acid) (human, rat)99575-89-0Inquiry
  • Opioid Peptides

Opioid peptides share a common 5 amino acid sequence at the N-terminus. Opioid peptides can be divided into three categories: enkephalins, dynorphins, and endorphins. Opioid peptides can regulate gastrointestinal motility.

Dynorphin A (1-13)72957-38-1YGGFLRRIRPKLKInquiry
Dynorphin B 1-1383335-41-5YGGFLRRQFKVVTInquiry
β-Casomorphin, human102029-74-3YPFVEPXInquiry
β-Casomorphin (1-3), amide80705-23-3Tyr-Pro-PheInquiry
β-Casomorphin (1-5), amide, bovine83936-23-6Tyr-d-Ala-Phe-Pro-MetInquiry
β-Casomorphin (1-6), bovine77434-43-6Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-GlyInquiry
β-Casomorphin (1-7), bovine72122-62-4YPFPGPIInquiry
α-Neoendorphin 1-883339-89-3YGGFLRKYInquiry
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a linear peptide composed of 43 amino acids, which is produced by K cells of the small intestinal mucosa. The physiological functions of GIP are to inhibit gastric acid secretion, inhibit pepsin secretion, stimulate insulin release, inhibit gastric peristalsis and emptying, stimulate the secretion of small intestinal juice and stimulate the secretion of glucagon.

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