Papilloma virus (PV) is a huge family of viruses, widely distributed in humans and animals. Among them, human papilloma virus (Human papilloma virus, HPV) is a PV virus with humans as the sole host. The virion is composed of a double-stranded circular DNA of about 8000 base pairs and an icosahedral three-dimensionally symmetrical protein capsid. HPV has a high degree of tissue specificity, can infect human epidermal and mucosal epithelial cells, and can cause a variety of benign and malignant tumors.
According to the degree of difference in HPV gene sequences, HPV viruses can be divided into different subtypes. More than 200 HPV subtypes have been identified and named. Most of these HPV subtypes do not cause any symptoms after infection, but some HPV subtypes can cause benign lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, such as warts. The infection of other very few HPV subtypes may lead to cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer in women and penile cancer in men, as well as anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer shared by men and women.
HPV has a wide range of transmission routes, and its main route of transmission is sexual transmission. In addition, it also includes several transmission methods such as close contact transmission, indirect contact transmission, iatrogenic infection, and mother-to-child transmission. Among them, the infection rate of genital parts is very heterogeneous among different populations, and the infection rate ranges from 10% to 40%, while the infection rate of exposed skin parts (such as palms) can be as high as 70% or even higher.
Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors, and its incidence ranks fourth in malignant tumors, second only to breast cancer, colorectal cancer and lung cancer. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, there are about 600,000 new cases of cervical cancer and about 340,000 deaths worldwide each year. About 85% of new cervical cancer cases and 90% of cervical cancer deaths occur in economically underdeveloped areas. HPV infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Clinically, almost all (about 99.7%) cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection. Persistent HPV infection can also lead to cancer of the vulva, vagina, and anus in women, and of the anus and penis in men. 40% to 70% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are also associated with HPV infection.
At present, there is no specific drug for HPV infection in clinical practice. Most people can rely on their own immunity to clear the HPV virus from their body within 8 to 12 months of being infected with HPV. In recent years, clinical screening for high-risk HPV infection has become an important means of early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. In addition, scientists have further developed vaccines to prevent HPV infection to fight HPV-related cancers such as cervical cancer.
E6/E7 refers to two gene fragments of HPV, and the expression of its protein is a necessary factor for cell carcinogenesis. HPV can avoid the apoptosis of infected cells, thereby immortalizing the cells. The E6 and E7 proteins of HPV play a key role in this process. E6 and E7 proteins interact with important cell cycle regulatory proteins. The establishment of the oncogenic properties of E6 and E7 makes these viral genes two important targets for anti-HPV therapy.
As a new generation of cervical lesions assessment new technology - E6/E7 mRNA detection, compared with HPV DNA detection, has better specificity and positive predictive value. E6/E7 mRNA is an effective marker for cervical cancer screening. The detection of E6/E7 mRNA pays more attention to the trend and process of lesions, which can be used for postoperative evaluation
|HPV16 E7 86-93
|Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein 49-57