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Parasin I

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Parasin I, a 19-amino acid histone H2A-derived peptide isolated from the skin of the catfish, is a cell permeable cationic antimicrobial agent.

Functional Peptides
Catalog number
CAS number
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
Parasin I
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[2-[[2-[[(2S)-5-amino-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[2-[[(2S)-5-carbamimidamido-2-[[2-[[(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]pentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]acetyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-methylbutanoyl]amino]-5-carbamimidamidopentanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-5-carbamimidamidopentanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
H-Lys-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gln-Gly-Gly-Lys-Val-Arg-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys-Thr-Arg-Ser-Ser-OH; L-lysyl-glycyl-L-arginyl-glycyl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-glycyl-glycyl-L-lysyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-threonyl-L-arginyl-L-seryl-L-serine
1.50±0.1 g/cm3
Store at -20°C
Soluble in DMSO, Water
InChI Key
Canonical SMILES
1.Characterization of bioactive recombinant antimicrobial peptide parasin I fused with human lysozyme expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris system.
Zhao H;Tang J;Cao L;Jia G;Long D;Liu G;Chen X;Cai J;Shang H Enzyme Microb Technol. 2015 Sep;77:61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.06.001. Epub 2015 Jun 6.
Parasin I (PI) is a 19 amino acid peptide with potent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microorganisms and is a good candidate for development as a novel antimicrobial agent. The objective of this study was to express and characterize a codon optimized parasin I peptide fused with human lysozyme (hLY). A 513 bp cDNA fragment encoding the mature hLY protein and parasin I peptide was designed and synthesized according to the codon bias of Pichia pastoris. A 4×Gly flexible amino acid linker with an enterokinase cleavage (DDDDK) was designed to link the PI to the C-terminal of hLY. The codon optimized recombinant hLY-PI was cloned into the pPICZαA vector and expressed in P. pastoris. The over-expressed extracellular rehLY-PI was purified using Ni sepharose affinity column and exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 18 kDa. After digested with enterokinase the rehLY-PI protein release its corresponding rehLY and rePI, with molecular mass of 16 kDa and 2 kDa, respectively, on Tricine-SDS-PAGE. The released rehLY exhibited similar lytical activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus to its commercial hLY. The digested rehLY-PI product exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and synergism has been found between the released rePI and rehLY.
2.Direct expression of antimicrobial peptides in an intact form by a translationally coupled two-cistron expression system.
Jang SA;Sung BH;Cho JH;Kim SC Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Jun;75(12):3980-6. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02753-08. Epub 2009 Apr 10.
We describe a novel prokaryotic expression system for the production of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The method relies on a translationally coupled two-cistron system, in which the termination codon for the first cistron (which encodes the anionic polypeptide mIFc2, a derivative of human gamma interferon) overlaps with the initiation codon for the second cistron (which encodes a cationic AMP) in the sequence of 5'-TAATG-3'. By forming an insoluble complex with the AMP upon translation, the mIFc2 protein efficiently neutralized the toxicity of the coexpressed cationic AMP and minimized the sensitivity of AMP to proteolytic degradation in a host. The AMPs were retrieved from the insoluble inclusion bodies without any chemical or enzymatic cleavage step by simple cation-exchange chromatography. With our system, approximately 100 mg of various AMPs (buforin IIb, parasin I, and pexiganan) were obtained from 1 liter of Escherichia coli culture. Our expression system may represent a universal cost-effective solution for the mass production of intact AMPs in their natural forms.
3.Structure-activity relations of parasin I, a histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptide.
Koo YS;Kim JM;Park IY;Yu BJ;Jang SA;Kim KS;Park CB;Cho JH;Kim SC Peptides. 2008 Jul;29(7):1102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2008.02.019. Epub 2008 Mar 7.
The structure-activity relations and mechanism of action of parasin I, a 19-amino acid histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptide, were investigated. Parasin I formed an amphipathic alpha-helical structure (residues 9-17) flanked by two random coil regions (residues 1-8 and 18-19) in helix-promoting environments. Deletion of the lysine residue at the N-terminal [Pa(2-19)] resulted in loss of antimicrobial activity, but did not affect the alpha-helical content of the peptide. The antimicrobial activity was recovered when the lysine residue was substituted with another basic residue, arginine ([R(1)]Pa), but not with polar, neutral, or acidic residues. Progressive deletions from the C-terminal [Pa(1-17), Pa(1-15)] slightly increased the antimicrobial activity (1-4 microg/ml) without affecting the alpha-helical content of the peptide. However, further deletion [Pa(1-14)] resulted in nearly complete loss of antimicrobial activity and alpha-helical structure. Confocal microscopic analysis and membrane permeabilization assays showed that parasin I and its analogs with comparable antimicrobial activities localized to the cell membrane and subsequently permeabilized the outer and cytoplasmic membranes.
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